Topic: General

Five Graphs Celebrating Women’s Progress

Harriet Tubman’s forthcoming placement on the U.S. twenty dollar bill is being hailed as a symbolic win for women. Tubman certainly deserves the honor, and Cato’s Doug Bandow called for putting Tubman on “the twenty” a year ago. In celebration of the soon-to-be-redesigned twenty dollar bill, here are 5 graphs showcasing the incredible progress that women have made in the realms of work, education, health, etc.

1. The gender wage gap, which is largely the result of divergent career choices between men and women rather than overt sexism, is narrowing in the United States and in other developed countries. Part of this trend may be explained by more women entering highly paid fields previously dominated by men. For example, there are more women inventors and researchers in developed countries.label 

2. Around the world, girls in their teens have fewer children and are more likely to complete secondary education. As a smaller share of teenaged girls become mothers, many are better able to pursue education. The gender gap in youth literacyprimary school completion, and secondary school completion are all shrinking, even in many poor areas. Today, there are actually more women than men pursuing tertiary education and earning college degrees.label  

3. In the United States, domestic violence against women has fallen considerably since the 1990s. And the very worst kind of domestic violence—homicide of an intimate partner—has also become rarer in the United States, both for male and female victims. Police also recorded fourteen thousand fewer cases of rape in the United States in 2013 than in 2003—in spite of a population increase. In fact, both rapes and sexual assaults against women have declined significantly in the United States since the 1990s. Evolving attitudes about the acceptability of violence against women may be partially to thank.

Topics:

Largest Federal Government Agencies

We’ve updated the charting tool at www.downsizinggovernment.org/charts with the latest data. You can plot spending on hundreds of federal agencies and programs in constant, or inflation-adjusted, dollars. The charts cover 1970 to 2016.

Which are the largest federal government agencies, and how much have they grown? The following series of seven charts captured from the charting tool shows the 21 largest agencies in order by size.

The first chart shows that Defense, Health and Human Services, and the Social Security Administration used to vie for top spot as the largest agency. But Defense is now being left in the dust, as the latter two entitlement-dispensing agencies gobble up ever more tax dollars.

On Vergara: Stop Making Parents and Children Wards of the State

I am not a lawyer, and I’m certainly not an expert on California law, but yesterday’s state appeals court ruling in the much-discussed Vergara v. California teacher tenure case seems plausible. While Golden State statutes make it very hard to remove bad teachers, and may lead to the worst teachers being disproportionately assigned to schools serving low-income kids, district administrators could curb that if they really, really wanted to. It would just require very expensive, convoluted dismissal procedures be followed for each unsatisfactory educator. So technically, the law may not violate California’s constitution. But to defend it, in reality, is to defend a system heavily slanted against low-income students.

Vergara has spawned similar cases in other states, and I would guess there is a good chance similar rulings will come down the pike in those places. But there is probably also a good chance of tenure laws being overturned. It doesn’t strike me that, from a legal perspective, either side has a clearly superior case. But again, I am not a lawyer.

What this once again screams is that public policy needs to move away from an education system in which parents are dependent on politicians or courts to protect their children. They need money to be attached to kids and to have the ability to take their children out of schools they do not like and put them into other institutions. And there should be no blanket state seniority or teacher evaluation rules. Educators should be free to get together and set up schools with whatever policies they want, and whether or not those schools survive or those policies are maintained should depend on their ability to attract enough paying customers with the services they produce.

We need to stop making parents and children wards of the state, and instead give them real power.

Balancing the Federal Budget

Donald Trump says, “we’ve got to start balancing budgets,” and promises that he is “going to cut spending big league.” Trump provides few specifics, but his impulse is certainly commendable.

Ted Cruz offers a much more detailed plan, which includes abolishing four cabinet departments and a couple dozen agencies and programs. The presidential candidate is right that the “current and projected rates of government growth are unsustainable, irresponsible, and constitutionally indefensible.”

Large spending cuts should be on the agenda when the next president enters office in 2017. Spending cuts would spur economic growth by shifting resources from lower-valued government activities to higher-valued private ones. Cuts would expand freedom by giving people more control over their lives and reducing the regulations that come with spending programs.

What should the next president cut? I have updated a plan at DownsizingGovernment to cut dozens of agencies and programs across the budget. I’ve included cuts to entitlements, business subsidies, aid to the states, and other items. The cuts would not only balance the budget and begin reducing the government’s massive debt, but they would also enhance our civil liberties by dispersing power from Washington.

See the new spending cut plan here.

Political Parties Belong to Their Members

Principled Republicans have been dismayed by the way this primary season has gone, rightly believing that their party has been hijacked by people having little or no connection with the party or its principles as articulated over the years in party platforms. In this morning’s Wall Street Journal, Kimberley Strassel has a long interview with former Cato board member Eric O’Keefe, head of the Wisconsin Club for Growth, who puts his finger on the heart of the problem.

Pointing to “the party’s constitutional right to operate as a wholly private, autonomous political actor,” and looking ahead to the convention, O’Keefe asks, “Why should Republicans bow down to the results of state-mandated open primaries that allow liberal and independent voters to bum-rush what is supposed to be a private poll?” “There’s nothing that special or even good about the government-run primary process,” he adds, and this year’s process is Exhibit A. While the media focus on the anger in the country—which surely there is, and for good reason—still, no one can tell how much mischief has been done through cross-over, sometimes strategic voting in state-mandated open primaries. When that happens, a party—a private organization, not contemplated by the Constitution’s Framers—loses control of its message and its purpose: to put forward in the general election the candidates that best represent the views of its members.

The hijacking of the primary process is only part of the problem, of course. Campaign finance restrictions, about which O’Keefe has had bitter experience in Wisconsin in the last few years, are an equal or even greater burden on a party’s ability to conduct its affairs and get its message out, but that’s a subject for another day. For the present, O’Keefe is looking ahead to the July convention:

The delegates have been going to conventions for years and treating them like Super Bowl parties because there was nothing else to do. But this year they have the opportunity to practice a great national tradition, to exercise their legal, historical right to defeat a man who opposes most of what they believe in, and instead nominate a candidate who represents them.

If they succeed, and succeed in November as well, perhaps the first order of business should be to work with the states toward restoring the principle that political parties are private entities, not extensions of the government, and how they run their affairs are for their members alone to decide.

Sens. Paul and Markey Propose Drone Restrictions

The MQ-9 Predator drone is probably best known as a tool of American foreign policy. Since 2002 the Bush and Obama administrations have used unmanned aircraft such as the predator in missions that have (according to New America) resulted in the deaths of hundreds of civilians and thousands of militants in the ongoing War on Terror.

However, Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has used predator drones in American airspace, albeit with limited success. As my colleague Patrick Eddington pointed out in September last year, CBP has a poor track record when it comes to using drones. At the end of 2014 the Department of Homeland Security’s Inspector General found

Although CBP anticipated increased apprehensions of illegal border crossers, a reduction in border surveillance costs, and improvement in the U.S. Border Patrol’s efficiency, we found little or no evidence that CBP met those program expectations.

In a blunt press release issued last year the Department of Homeland Security’s Inspector General’s office said that it  ”recommends that CBP abandon plans to spend $443 millionmore on additional aircraft and put those funds to better use.”

Two senators recently singled out border patrol drones for special treatment in proposed legislation that would restrict the government’s use of drones.

An amendment to the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2016 proposed by Sens. Rand Paul (R-KY) and Edward Markey (D-MA) would prohibit the government from using drones to “gather evidence or other information pertaining to criminal conduct or conduct in violation of a statute or regulation or for intelligence purposes except to the extent authorized in a warrant.”

America’s Economic Problem Is Regulation, not Trade

Even when Donald Trump seems to get something right, he’s mostly wrong. At least when it comes to economics.

Many Americans are suffering financially. Yet the problem is not trade: Americans have grown wealthy as a trading nation. In contrast, regulation has done much to harm U.S. competitiveness.

The Obama administration is busy writing new rules to turn America into its vision of a good society, irrespective of the impact on liberty or prosperity. Last year Uncle Sam spent $62 billion to run the rest of our lives.

Observed Patrick McLaughlin and Oliver Sherouse of the Mercatus Center: “Over the last 20 years the regulatory budget has more than doubled in real terms while the number of total restrictions has grown by about 220,000—a 25 percent increase.”

The problem is not only the expense of enforcement. Far greater is the cost of the impact on the economy.

Last year Clyde Wayne Crews of the Competitive Enterprise Institute assessed the impact of regulation in his working paper entitled “Tip of the Costberg.” He figured the total price of regulation to be $1.88 trillion.

However, these figures almost certainly are too low. Crews argued: “Too often, regulatory impacts don’t get measured. But further, the disruption of market processes and the derailment of wealth, safety and health creating processes themselves are for the most part wholly neglected.”

Regulatory costs play out in many ways. One aspect is what an individual or company spends to comply with government dictates. Far harder to measure is what does not occur as a result of arbitrary and expensive rules. What products are not launched, what enterprises are not started, what jobs are not created?

Of course, regulations theoretically are promulgated because they yield net benefits after costs. However, agencies have an incentive to inflate the value of what they are doing. That means exaggerating problems and “social costs,” overstating alleged benefits, and discounting compliance costs.

Overall how much have we lost from excessive, unnecessary regulation? A lot, according to economists John W. Dawson and John J. Seater.

They considered the cumulative impact of losing a couple percent of economic growth year in and year out from 1949 through 2005: “That reduction in the growth rate has led to an accumulated reduction in GDP of about $38.8 trillion as of the end of 2011. That is, GDP at the end of 2011 would have been $53.9 trillion instead of $15.1 trillion if regulation had remained at its 1949 level.”

Increased regulation also contributes to increased inequality. In January McLaughlin and Laura Stanley of Mercatus concluded that such rules “skew income toward politically connected producers and away from individual who lack the resources necessary to navigate the legal and regulatory framework.” 

Finally, there is the issue of lost liberty. Crews released a second study last year entitled “Mapping Washington’s Lawlessness 2016.” It reviewed what he termed “regulatory dark matter.”

The regulatory process is essentially lawless, beyond the normal accountability of a democratic system. As Crews explained: “Congress passes and the president signs a few dozen laws every year. Meanwhile, federal departments and agencies issue well over 3,000 rules and regulations of varying significance. A weekday never passes without new regulation. Beyond those rules, however, we lack a clear grasp on the amount and cost of the thousands of executive branch and federal agency proclamations and issuances, including memos, guidance documents, bulletins, circulars, and announcements with practical regulatory effect.”

Americans are suffering. But closing off the economy is no answer to them.

As I pointed out in American Spectator online: “Policymakers should address federal, state, and local governments which are doing so much to prevent American companies from out-competing foreign operations and rewarding Americans accordingly. These are the bad policies to blame for creating today’s economic problems and imposing widespread financial hardship, thereby fueling the populist Trump bandwagon.”