Afghans have endured 40 years of uninterrupted war, and there is no plausible argument that war will soon end. In all the debate about troop surges or maintaining the status quo, two critical questions rarely get asked: Why have Afghans been at war for so long, and why can’t the United States and the international community end it? In a new paper, Cato scholar Erik Goepner argues that 40 years of war have fundamentally changed Afghans, and offers recommendations for U.S. efforts in Afghanistan now and for other high-trauma civil war states in the future.
- “War State, Trauma State: Why Afghanistan Remains Stuck in Conflict,” by Erik Goepner
- “War State, Trauma State,” Podcasts with Erik Goepner and Caleb O. Brown: Part 1 | Part 2