Jacob "Bumper" Hornberger has posted a gracious response to my article "Up from Slavery, " which among other things criticized his essay "Liberal Delusions about Freedom." It's a pleasure to engage in intelligent and civil debate with another committed libertarian.
Hornberger says that he should have mentioned the "tragic exception" of slavery in writing about American freedom in the 19th century, and he links to many articles where he did so. I am glad to know that the article I criticized was an exception. Still, I'm not sure that parenthetical asides, as in this first linked article, quite suffice:
With exceptions (slavery being the worst), during the first 150 years of America's history, people were free to live their lives in any way they chose as long as their actions did not entail violence or fraud against others.
Slavery was not just an exception. It was the foundation of the Southern economy. Slaves made up 19 percent of the population at the beginning of the 19th century -- about 50 percent of the Southern population -- and there were four million Americans held in chains in 1860. And of course, one might also note the exclusion of women not just from voting but from property ownership in the early 19th century. So that means that only about 40 percent of "people" were free to live their lives as they chose in the pre-Civil War era.
Hornberger goes on to posit a more plausible golden age, 1880:
Let’s consider, say, the year 1880. Here was a society in which people were free to keep everything they earned, because there was no income tax. They were also free to decide what to do with their own money—spend it, save it, invest it, donate it, or whatever. People were generally free to engage in occupations and professions without a license or permit. There were few federal economic regulations and regulatory agencies. No Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, welfare, bailouts, or so-called stimulus plans. No IRS. No Departments of Education, Energy, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor. No EPA and OSHA. No Federal Reserve. No drug laws. Few systems of public schooling. No immigration controls. No federal minimum-wage laws or price controls. A monetary system based on gold and silver coins rather than paper money. No slavery. No CIA. No FBI. No torture or cruel or unusual punishments. No renditions. No overseas military empire. No military-industrial complex.
As a libertarian, as far as I’m concerned, that’s a society that is pretty darned golden.
Good points. But Will Wilkinson responds:
How about the female half of the population? By 1880 coverture laws, which basically denied married women any meaningful property rights, were still in place in many states. (Coverture laws persisted in some states until the 1920s.) And there were plenty of further paternalistic regulations on the sort of work women were allowed to undertake. Of course, women in 1880 had almost no meaningful rights to political participation, ensuring that they were unable to demand recognition and protection of their basic liberty rights through the political system.
Slavery was gone in 1880, but systematic state-enforced racial apartheid was going strong. The economic and political rights of blacks were severely curtailed under the various antebellum state Black Codes and then under the Jim Crow laws. What formal rights Southern blacks did have were often denied in fact by extralegal enforcement of racist norms by lynch mobs and other campaigns of terror.
By 1880, most of the the U.S.’s imperialist efforts to secure North American territory against the claims of competing European imperial powers were complete. But the government’s campaign of murder, theft, and segregation against native populations continued.
One could go on and on in this vein in gruesome detail. But this is enough to establish the point: 1880’s America was a society in which well more than half the population was systematically and often brutally denied basic liberty rights. If that’s golden, I’d hate to see bronze.
I'd make one more point in response to Hornberger. He writes:
Boaz raises another point that needs addressing: He attempts to diminish the significance of what our American forebears achieved.
I certainly did not attempt to do that, and I don't think that's a plausible reading of my article. I am a great admirer of the Founders, as I write on many occasions. When I talk about the progress we've made in expanding freedom for blacks, women, gays, and other once-excluded groups of people, I often say that we have "extended the promises of the Declaration of Independence -- life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness -- to more and more people." I love and respect those promises, I appreciate the extent to which the Founders made good on them immediately, and I am glad that they have indeed been extended.
I share Hornberger's commitment to a world with no income tax, no alphabet soup agencies, no central banking, no drug laws, and so on. I'm just not sure that the world of 1880 -- much less the world of 1850 -- is actually more free, on balance, for Americans as a whole, than today's world. But that's a reasonable argument, and I am happy to engage Hornberger and others in it.
Of course, the world is full of unreasonable arguments, too. In case anyone's been reading some of them in the Reason comments or elsewhere on the Web, let me make just a few comments: I did not "attack" or "malign" Jacob Hornberger; I criticized an article he wrote. In fact, I took pains to call him one of the "libertarians who hate slavery" in distinction to some self-styled libertarians who sound like neo-Confederates. I did not say that "we have to accept" the Civil War, anti-discrimination laws, the income tax, or anything else as the price of abolishing slavery; I just said that we shouldn't overlook the crime of slavery when we write paeans to 19th-century freedom, and that on the whole we may very well be freer today than in antebellum America. I did not say that "it was necessary to reduce everyone's freedom drastically before we can morally allow anyone to have more freedom than another." Here's a tip: If you're shocked by what someone says my article said, please read the article.
OK, that's all for this topic. I have a D.C. power-elite meeting to go to, and then a Georgetown cocktail party.