In 2011, members of Congress began criticizing a proposed IRS rule implementing ObamaCare's health insurance tax credits. They claimed that the proposed rule violated the clear language of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as well as congressional intent, by issuing those tax credits in states that declined to establish a health insurance "exchange." In effect, they claimed the proposed rule would result in the federal government taxing, borrowing, and spending hundreds of billions of dollars without congressional authorization.
At the time, then–IRS commissioner Douglas Shulman leapt to his agency's defense. He wrote that various provisions of the statute "support" the rule. He wrote that the "relevant" legislative history doesn't show that Congress didn't want the IRS to tax, borrow, and spend those hundreds of billions of dollars. He wrote that the proposed rule is "consistent with the language, purpose, and structure" of the law. The only thing he didn't do was cite a provision of the law authorizing the rule, or even creating any ambiguity about the rule's illegality.
The IRS finalized that illegal rule in May 2012. You can read all about it in my article with Jonathan Adler, "Taxation Without Representation: The Illegal IRS Rule to Expand Tax Credits Under the PPACA."
It is worth noting that Shulman also leapt to the IRS's defense against another charge that the agency was abusing its power. In 2012, conservative groups complained that the IRS was targeting them for audits. Shulman issued a forceful and categorical denial:
IRS Commissioner Douglas Shulman told Congress in March 2012 that the IRS was not targeting groups based on their political views.
“There’s absolutely no targeting. This is the kind of back and forth that happens to people” who apply for tax-exempt status, Shulman told a House Ways and Means subcommittee.
Shulman was wrong. Today, the IRS admitted it has been targeting conservative groups for audits.
Perhaps some Friday afternoon hence we will be treated to an IRS admission that their tax-credit rule violates the Administrative Procedures Act and the PPACA, as two lawsuits now allege. I won't hold my breath.