In Federalist 39, James Madison asks whether the 1787 Constitution
be strictly republican. It is evident that no other form would be reconcilable with the genius of the people of America; with the fundamental principles of the Revolution; or with that honorable determination which animates every votary of freedom, to rest all our political experiments on the capacity of mankind for self‐government.
The political scientist John DiIulio, Jr. answers ten questions about big government. He shows that regulations and spending by the federal government have risen a lot over the past half century. At the same time, representatives of the people have less control over the people who implement big government. The feds delegate implementation to state and local governments and contractors. These “agents of the people” by and large, he argues, do a poor job.
DiIulio concludes that Americans “want big government benefits and programs, but they do not want to pay big government taxes and they prefer not to receive their goods and services directly from the hand of big government bureaucracies.” Add some lobbying by contractors and state and local officials, and you have big, incompetent government.
DiIulio recalls Alexander Hamilton’s claim that “the true test of good government is its aptitude and tendency to produce a good administration.” That’s a Hamiltonian thing to say!
Madisonian things ought also be said. The U.S. Constitution promised republican self‐government, not efficient tax collection and a skilled civil service. The government DiIulio outlines involves so many people doing so much that elected representatives can hardly be expected to control this vast administrative state. The old hope for republican liberty too has been diminished by the rise of big government.