Elevated CO2 and Temperature Enhance the Grain Yield and Quality of Rice

Setting the stage for their study, Roy et al. (2015) write that rice is “one of the most important C3 species of cereal crops,” adding that it “generally responds favorably to elevated CO2.” However, they note that the actual response of rice crops to elevated CO2 and warming “is uncertain.” The team of five Indian scientists set out “to determine the effect of elevated CO2 and night time temperature on (1) biomass production, (2) grain yield and quality and (3) C [carbon], N [nitrogen] allocations in different parts of the rice crop in tropical dry season.”

The experiment they designed to achieve these objectives was carried out at the ICAR-Central Rice Research Institute in Cuttack, Odisha, India, using open-top-chambers in which rice (cv. Naveen) was grown in either control (ambient CO2 and ambient temperature), elevated CO2 (550 ppm, ambient temperature) or elevated CO2 and raised temperature (550 ppm and +2°C above ambient) conditions for three separate growing seasons.

In discussing their findings, Roy et al. write that the aboveground plant biomass, root biomass, grain yield, leaf area index and net C assimilation rates of the plants growing under elevated CO2 conditions all showed significant increases (32, 26, 22, 21, and 37 percent, respectively) over their ambient counter-parts. Each of these variables were also enhanced under elevated CO2 and increased temperature conditions over ambient CO2 and temperature, though to a slightly lesser degree than under elevated CO2 conditions alone. 

With respect to grain quality, the authors report there was no difference among the parameters they measured in any of treatments, with the exception of starch and amylose content, which were both significantly higher in the elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 plus elevated temperature treatments. The C and N grain yields were also both significantly increased in both of these treatments compared with control conditions.

The results of this study thus bode well for the future of rice production in India during the dry season. As the CO2 concentration of the air rises, yields will increase.  And if the temperature rises as models project, yields will still increase, though by not quite as much. These findings, coupled with the fact that the grain nutritional quality (as defined by an increase in amylose content) was enhanced by elevated CO2, suggest there is a bright future in store for rice in a carbon dioxide-enhanced atmosphere.



Roy, K.S., Bhattacharyya, P., Nayak, A.K., Sharma, S.G. and Uprety, D.C. 2015. Growth and nitrogen allocation of dry season tropical rice as a result of carbon dioxide fertilization and elevated night time temperature. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 103: 293-309.