In “real” space, self‐regulation of a number of different types has grown up. These include:
- Regulation of electrical appliances and equipment through the Underwriters Laboratories.
- Green Seal, which develops standards for environmentally sound products.
- Certifications for kosher and halal food.
- Financial rating services, such as Dun & Bradstreet and Moody’s.
- The MPAA motions picture ratings, the Comics Code, and the Recreational Software Advisory Council.
Some of these systems of self‐regulation arrived in response to varying degrees of government pressure, including the MPAA ratings and proposals for self‐regulation on privacy. The blacklisting of spammer Internet Service Providers by anti‐spam groups like the Open Relay Blocking System and the MAPS Realtime Blackhole list, is a good example of purely private, market driven conduct.