Press reports have created the impression that the opioid overdose antidote naloxone is now available over the counter. But in fact, the drug is still classified in the US as prescription only, so states have developed workarounds to make it easier for patients to obtain it without going to a doctor for a prescription. In most states, patients can get naloxone by going up to the counter and asking the pharmacist, who is legally authorized by the state to dispense it.
But some states prohibit third parties from obtaining a prescription for another person, so people in those states who wish to have the antidote available because they have a friend or relative who uses opioids cannot obtain it. And experience shows that many pharmacists choose to not stock naloxone or participate in any distribution program. Furthermore, the stigma now attached to opioid use has deterred many patients from going up to the pharmacy counter and explaining to a pharmacist why they need naloxone.
The Food and Drug Administration is on record since at least 2016 as believing that it is probably appropriate for naloxone to be rescheduled as OTC and has encouraged manufacturers to petition the FDA to that end. Yesterday FDA Commissioner Gottlieb announced the FDA has even gone to the trouble of designing Drug Facts Labels (DFL) required of manufactures for their products to be sold over the counter, and has even tested these labels for “consumer comprehension” in front of focus groups. The Commissioner stated in the announcement that this represents an unprecedented effort to facilitate and speed up the reclassification of naloxone from prescription-only to OTC.
This is commendable. But as I have written here, here, and here, the Commissioner does not have to wait for manufacturers, who may lack the incentive, to request the move to OTC. Under FDA regulations, the FDA can undertake reclassification review at the request of “any interested person,” or the Commissioner himself. States may petition the FDA for reclassification. Finally, if all else fails, Congress can order the reclassification.
The FDA should no longer wait for manufacturers to ask them to make this lifesaving drug more accessible to those in need.