Michael Kremer is an American economist and the Gates Professor of Developing Societies at Harvard University. Kremer’s work has focused on poverty alleviation and the role of incentive structures in development.

Kremer started what is known as the advanced market commitment, which focuses on creating incentive mechanisms to encourage the development of vaccines for use in developing countries. He has also been a pioneer in the use of randomized trials to evaluate interventions. In 2019, Kremer was one of three recipients of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, together with his frequent collaborators Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo, "for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty."