Africa is one of the most protectionist regions in the world. Most imports, including life-saving drugs and medical equipment, continue to be subjected to high tariff and nontariff barriers. Moreover, African countries impose some of their highest tariffs on goods from other African countries. African trade liberalization could increase intra-African trade by 54 percent. It is hypocritical for African leaders to call for greater access to global markets while rejecting trade openness at home. Andrew Mitchell will explain why African governments should support a Pan-African Free Trade Agreement if they are truly serious about the benefits of trade liberalization.