A further development in the cross-border supply of gambling and betting services broke today when the European Union announced they would launch a formal investigation into the selective (and retroactive) prosecution of European gaming interests by US authorities.
This is yet another twist in the saga first brought to light by Antigua’s case against the United States in the WTO. That case (summarized here and updated here, here, here, and here) sparked a slew of indirectly related skirmishes, a plethora of “David vs. Goliath” headlines, and an unprecedented reaction from the United States to pick up their ball and go home. The various twists and turns of the dispute have provided ample fodder for trade junkies in the form of commercial and systemic issues: Does the WTO dispute settlement mechanism provide effective recourse for big as well as small members? How should WTO members respond when one of their cohorts wants to change the nature of the contracts between the parties? How do members balance their rights and obligations in the context of issues of public morals?
The questions look far from answered because if the EUs investigation proceeds, a new WTO case could be on the horizon. Although the EU and the United States came to a settlement in December over the United States’ wish to withdraw its commitment to open its market to the cross-border supply of gambling and betting services, the details of that settlement are sketchy. And the December deal pertains to compensation for the withdrawal of market access going forward: unless and until that deal is ratified by all WTO members (including those who are asking for compensation of their own), the U.S. obligations stand and so does the ruling that found the United States was in breach of those obligations.
In other words, while the United States might eventually be able to get away with changing its obligations to provide WTO members access to the lucrative U.S. gambling market, in the meantime their (discriminatory?) prosecution of offshore interests leaves them vulnerable.