The European Union appears to be in trouble. The rise of economic nationalism among member states has thrown the Lisbon Agenda’s goal of European economic revival into disarray, and Europe’s trade protectionism has contributed to the collapse of the Doha round of trade negotiations. Europe’s decision makers have been paralyzed by the rejection of the European Constitution, and many wonder if the European integration, process can recover its former vitality. John Gillingham, one of the world’s leading experts on the EU, argues that current attempts to revive the EU through initiatives centrally planned in Brussels are doomed to fail. He calls on Europe to instead embrace the wave of liberal reforms that swept through the former communist countries.