November 5, 2018 7:00AM

Poll: The ACA’s Pre‐​existing Condition Regulations Lose Support When the Public Learns the Cost

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Days before the 2018 midterms, 68% of voters say that health care is very or extremely important to how they plan to vote in this year’s elections, according to a new Cato 2018 Health Care Survey of 2,498 Americans. These numbers are driven primarily by Democratic voters with 86% who say this issue is especially important to them—in fact, 56% say the issue is “extremely important” to them. Independent (33%) and Republican voters (21%) are far less likely to say this is an “extremely” crucial issue for their vote this Tuesday.


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These results are consistent with analysis of 2018 campaign ads, which finds Democrats have made healthcare the centerpiece of their case to voters. About half of Democratic ads have featured health care issues compared to less than a third of Republican ads. At the core of the debate is what to do with pre-existing condition regulations embedded in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) that prevent health insurers from denying coverage or charging higher premiums to people with pre-existing conditions. Much of the public debate centered on pre-existing condition protections assume that these regulations enjoy widespread public support. However, these protections lose public support when voters learn about their costs, finds the Cato 2018 Health Care Survey.

The survey first replicated the results from myriad other surveys finding a majority (65%) of Americans favor regulations that prohibit insurance companies from refusing to cover, or charging higher premiums to, people with pre-existing conditions, while 32% oppose. However, support plummets when Americans are faced with likely consequences of these regulations. 

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Support drops 20 points to 44% in favor and 51% opposed if pre-existing condition protections limited people’s access to medical tests and treatments. Similarly, 44% would favor and 50% would oppose if these regulations harmed the delivery of high-quality health care. Support drops 18 points to 47% in favor and 48% opposed if these regulations limited people’s access to top-rated medical facilities and treatment centers. Some may dismiss these potential costs as improbable; however, research finds these are likely consequences from the incentives these regulations create for the health care industry. It is for this reason that we investigate how the public evaluates these costs.

Compared to quality reductions, Americans are more prepared to pay higher taxes or premiums in exchange for keeping regulations that prevent insurers from denying coverage or charger higher premiums to people with pre-existing conditions. About half (51%) would favor and 44% oppose if these regulations raised taxes and 49% would favor and 47% would oppose if they drove up premiums. 

These results follow a familiar pattern identified in the Cato 2017 Health Care Survey that asked about each of these pre-existing condition protections separately. However, in this year’s survey we improve the desirability of these regulations by offering them as a bundle. Even still, when faced with the realistic costs of these mandates, public support plummets. 

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Taking a look among partisans, we find that without any mention of costs, 83% of Democrats, 55% of independents, and 52% of Republicans initially support pre-existing condition protections. However, independents and Republicans turn against these regulations if they increase the cost of health insurance (66%, 55%), reduce access to medical tests and treatments (59%, 58%), harm the quality of health care people receive (57%, 55%), reduce access to top-rated medical facilities and treatment centers (57%, 55%), or increase taxes (57%, 57%). Democrats are less swayed by these trade-offs; however, they are least willing to sacrifice the quality of health care in exchange for keeping the pre-existing condition regulations (42%). Instead, majorities of Democrats are willing to have less access to medical tests (57%), or top-rated medical facilities (61%), or pay higher premiums (67%) or taxes (72%). Some differences in how partisans answer these questions may depend, perhaps, on how believable these costs seem to respondents rather than how acceptable they are. For instance, since Democrats are most enthusiastic about these regulations, they may be less likely to believe that they could harm the quality of care.

Higher-income Americans are more willing than low-income Americans to make trade-offs, such as shouldering higher premiums or having less access to top-rated medical facilities, to keep the pre-existing condition regulations. For instance, 61% of Americans earning more than $80,000 a year say they’d pay higher premiums to keep these regulations. In contrast, about a third (38%) of Americans earning less than $40,000 a year agree; instead, 56% oppose paying higher premiums for this reason. Nearly 6 in 10 (57%) of people earning more than $80,000 a year say they’d accept having less access to top-rated medical facilities compared to 35% of Americans earning less than $20,000 a year.

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Short Term Plans

The survey also asked Americans about new federal rules that allow consumers to purchase alternative health insurance plans that don’t comply with ACA-mandates. The survey finds that majorities support new federal rules that allow consumers to purchase alternative plans, like short-term plans, even when confronted with likely trade-offs.

First, the survey presented respondents with only the anticipated benefits of the new federal rules. Doing so finds that 77% of Americans support new federal rules that allow consumers to purchase health insurance plans that cost 50% less and offer greater choices of hospitals and doctors than current plans and would cover 2 million more uninsured people. 

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Support drops to 64% in favor and 31% opposed if these rules meant that some people would purchase insurance policies that cover fewer services than current plans. For instance, these new plans would not be required to cover services like mental health and prescription drugs. 

One reason why such plans have lower premiums is they do not have to comply with ACA pre-existing condition regulations and thus may exclude people, or offer limited services to people, with expensive medical conditions. These lower premiums could draw people who use fewer medical services out of the ACA-compliant plans and thus increase premiums for those who remain in those plans and are not eligible for subsidies. Nevertheless, the survey finds that 59% would continue to favor while 35% would oppose these new rules if they caused premiums to rise for some people who purchase insurance plans in the individual market.

These rule changes are popular among partisans with 77% of Democrats and 86% of Republicans in support. Majorities of Democrats and Republicans continue to favor allowing people to purchase non-ACA compliant plans even if doing so means people would not have as many services covered (58% and 71%) or if doing so increased premiums for unsubsidized people in the individual market (63% and 65%).

The Path Forward

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The survey also asked Americans how they felt policymakers should approach health care reform going forward. A majority (55%) of Americans believe that the “better way” to sustainably provide high-quality affordable health care is through expanding free-market competition among insurance companies, doctors, and hospitals. Thirty-nine percent (39%) think that more government regulation of insurance companies, doctors, and hospitals is more likely to provide affordable coverage. These numbers are virtually unchanged from last year's health care survey.

Independents (54%) and Republicans (79%) agree that more free-market competition rather than more government management of health care is more likely to lead to affordable coverage. However, a majority (60%) of Democrats think more government management is the key. Despite these partisan differences, majorities or slim majorities of whites (58%), African Americans (53%) and Hispanics (51%) believe more free market competition can better provide affordable health care than more government control.


These results do not support the widespread misperception among the political punditry that pre-existing condition regulations are necessarily and universally supported by voters across the political spectrum. Voters like benefits but not costs. And some costs are more acceptable to voters than others. Democratic accountability demands that we understand if voters are willing to bear the necessary trade-offs and costs in exchange for establishing a new policy, regulatory protection, or social program. But first, pollsters have to ask.

Full survey results found here.


Sign up here to receive forthcoming Cato Institute survey reports.


The Cato Institute 2018 Health Care Survey was designed and conducted by the Cato Institute in collaboration with YouGov. YouGov collected responses online October 26-30, 2018 from a representative national sample of 2,498 Americans 18 years of age and older. The margin of error for the survey is +/- 2.66 percentage points at the 95% level of confidence.


December 5, 2017 10:35AM

ACA Subsidies and Labor Market Participation

Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, many economists have predicted that the Act will cause a reduction in labor market participation and a recent New York Times article seemingly vindicates these expectations. The article recounts how the rapid increase in insurance premiums have led Anne Cornwell to cut her working hours, and thus her yearly income, by 30 percent in order to be eligible for health insurance subsidies. The $24,000 reduction in income allowed Ms. Cornwell and her husband to qualify for $27,000 in subsidies.

Ms. Cornwell’s reduced labor market participation supports economists’ predictions based on how the ACA determines eligibility for subsidies. Subsidies are available for people who purchase coverage from health insurance exchanges created by the ACA and whose household income is between 100 and 400 percent of the Federal Poverty Level. Economists predicted that because the subsidies are based on household income instead of individual income, second earners in many households would reduce their hours in order to qualify.

In 2014, for example, the Congressional Budget Office projected that the ACA would reduce the total number of hours worked by 1.5 to 2 percent between 2017 and 2024. In terms of full-time-equivalent workers, this represents a decline of 2.5 million workers in 2024.

It is not yet clear whether Ms. Cornwell’s decision is representative of a larger population of American workers, but her situation does coincide with economists’ findings. A recent working paper by Stanford economists Mark Duggan, Gopi Shah Goda, and Emilie Jackson—which I review in the upcoming issue of Regulation—looks at how the ACA has affected labor market participation in different regions of the United States since its implementation in 2014.

While they found no change in participation in the aggregate, this result stemmed from two offsetting trends. They found an increase in labor market participation in regions where the share of uninsured and under the poverty line was larger and a reduction in participation in areas where there was a larger number of people who were uninsured and between 139 percent and 399 percent of the poverty line. “These changes suggest that middle-income individuals reduced their labor supply due to the additional tax on earnings while lower income individuals worked more in order to qualify for private insurance.”

Ms. Cornwell’s individual reduction in labor market participation is in line with these results. While the aggregate level of labor market participation may remain the same, the reduction of participation by middle-class individuals could indicate significant losses in tax revenues and employer surplus.

Written with research assistance from David Kemp.

August 7, 2017 12:32PM

Is The ACA Helping to Fuel the Opioid Overdose Rate?

Leaders at all levels of government and civil society are alarmed at the continued rise, year after year, in the death rate from opioid overdose. The latest numbers for 2015 report a record 33,000 deaths, the majority of which are now from heroin. Health insurers are not a disinterested party in this matter.

Cigna, America’s fifth largest insurer, recently announced it has made good progress towards its goal of reducing opioid use by its patients by 25% by mid-2019. To that end, Cigna is limiting the quantities of opioids dispensed to patients and requiring authorizations for most long acting opioid prescriptions. Cigna is encouraging its participating providers to curtail their use of opioid prescriptions for pain patients and is providing them with data from monitoring the opioid use patterns of their patients with an aim towards reducing abuse.

In a Washington Post report on this announcement Cigna CEO David Cordani said, “We determined that despite no profit rationale—in fact it’s contrary to that—that societally we needed to step into the void and we stepped in pretty aggressively.”

No profit rationale?

Paying for fewer opioids saves the insurer money in the short run. And opioids have become costlier as “tamper-resistant” reformulations, encouraged by the FDA, have led to new patents allowing manufacturers to demand higher prices.

There is growing evidence that, as doctors curtail their opioid prescriptions for genuine pain patients, many in desperation seek relief in the illegal market, exposing them to adulterated opioids as well as heroin. For the same reason, recent studies on the effect of state-based Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) suggest they have not led to reductions in opioid overdose rates and may actually be contributing to the increase. It is reasonable to be skeptical that Cigna’s internal prescription drug monitoring program will work any differently.

Further research suggests the community rating regulations of the Affordable Care Act may be contributing to the problem. The ACA requires insurance companies to sell their policies to people who have very expensive health conditions for the same premiums they charge healthy people. At the same time, the ACA’s “risk-adjustment” programs systematically underpay insurers for many of their sickest enrollees. The overall effect is that the ACA penalizes insurers whose networks and drug formularies are desirable to those who are sick. Insurers respond to this disincentive by designing their health plans to have with provider networks, drug formularies, and prescription co-payment schedules that are unattractive to such patients, hoping they will seek their coverage elsewhere. This “race to the bottom” between the health plans results in decreased access and suboptimal health care for many of the sickest patients.

Researchers at the University of Texas and Harvard University, in a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper, show “some consumers are unprofitable in a way that is predictable by their prescription drug demand,” and “…Exchange insurers design formularies as screening devices that are differentially unattractive to unprofitable consumer types,” resulting in lower levels of coverage for patients in those categories.

The researchers rank drug classes by net-loss to the insurer (per capita enrollee spending minus per capital enrollee revenue). Opioid antagonists, used to treat opioid addiction, exact the third highest penalty on insurers, about $6,000 for every opioid antagonist user. (See Table 2.)

This suggests that patients suffering from opioid dependency and/or addiction (there is a difference) are victims of the race to the bottom spawned by the ACA’s community rating price controls.

Thus, the opioid overdose crisis and the ACA mandates—especially community rating—combine to make the “perfect storm.” Insurers team up with state and federal regulators to curtail the prescription of opioids for chronic pain patients, leading many to suffer needlessly and driving some, in desperation, to the illegal drug market and the risk of death from overdose. Meanwhile, the ACA penalizes insurers who help patients seeking rescue from the torment of dependency and addiction.

June 21, 2017 12:33PM

Five Questions I Will Use to Evaluate the Phantom Senate Health Care Bill

Rumor has it that tomorrow is the day Senate Republican leaders will unveil the health care bill they have been busily assembling behind closed doors. So few details have emerged, President Trump could maybe learn something from Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell about how to prevent leaks. Even GOP senators are complaining they haven't been allowed to see the bill.

Here are five questions I will be asking about the Senate health care bill if and when it sees the light of day.

  1. Would it repeal the parts of ObamaCare—specifically, community rating—that preclude secure access to health care for the sick by causing coverage to become worse for the sick and the Exchanges to collapse?
  2. Would it make health care more affordable, or just throw subsidies at unaffordable care?
  3. Would it actually sunset the Medicaid expansion, or keep the expansion alive long enough for a future Democratic Congress to rescue it?
  4. Tax cuts are almost irrelevant—how much of ObamaCare’s spending would it repeal?
  5. If it leaves major elements of ObamaCare in place, would it lead voters to blame the ongoing failure of those provisions on (supposed) free-market reforms?

Depending on how Senate Republicans—or at least, the select few who get to write major legislation—answer those questions, the bill could be a step in the right direction. Or it could be ObamaCare-lite.

June 15, 2017 11:08AM

Survey: What Turns Democrats against the Affordable Care Act’s Core Regulations?

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, may perhaps be the most contentious and polarizing law we've seen enacted in the past several decades. For seven years, Democrats have remained convinced they like it and Republicans confident that they don't.

But once we get past the partisanship and polarization, what do Democrats and Republicans think about the fundamental regulations that constitute the core of Obamacare? These core regulations include pre-existing conditions rules that require insurance companies cover anyone who applies (guaranteed issue) and charge people the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions (community rating).

All government policies and their ostensible benefits come with a price. What are Americans willing to pay?

As I’ve previously written, the Cato Institute 2017 Health Care Survey found that while Americans initially support core Obamacare regulations of community rating and guaranteed issue, support plummets if such regulations harm access to high quality medical services, require higher premiums or higher taxes. That being said, Americans appear to care more about their access to high quality medical services than they care about higher taxes, higher premiums, or universal coverage for those with pre-existing conditions.

Democrats are unique, however. They are the only group who says they’d be willing to pay more if it guaranteed coverage to those with pre-existing conditions. Six in 10 Democrats say they’d be willing to personally pay higher taxes and 58% say they’d pay higher premiums so that insurance companies wouldn’t charge people higher rates based on pre-existing conditions (community rating). Similar shares say they'd pay higher taxes (60%) and premiums (51%) so that insurance companies would cover anyone who applies (guaranteed issue).

Yet, the survey found that Democrats turn against the core regulations in Obamacare if they threaten their access to medical services and treatments, limit their access to top hospitals and surgeons, or require them wait several months to see a specialist.

Indeed, 62% of Democrats would oppose regulations that ban insurance companies from charging higher rates to people based on pre-existing conditions if it limited their access to medical tests and treatments. Similarly, 65%  of Democrats would oppose the community rating rule if it required they wait several months before getting in to see a specialist for medically necessary care. And 54% would oppose if it limited their access to top rated medical facilities.

Similarly, two-thirds of Democrats would oppose regulations requiring insurance companies cover anyone who applies if these harmed the quality of health care in the US.


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Why should we care about these results? Academic research examining the impact of these regulations find that they do come with significant costs to the quality of health care—limiting access in the exchanges to top hospitals and surgeons and to medical services and treatments that people need.

Moreover, threats to the quality of health care constitute the one cost that Americans of all partisan persuasions would be unwilling to accept.

This doesn't mean Americans would oppose other methods to help those with pre-existing conditions obtain the health care they need. Instead, they may support other policies that achieve this goal so long as they don't come at the expense of quality in the U.S. health care system, raise premiums or hike taxes.

For too long, the national dialogue has focused almost exclusively on the cost versus coverage debate. This misses a third and incredibly important dimension that is a top priority of the American public: health care quality in the United States. Health care regulations and proposed reforms must be assessed not only according to their impact on cost and coverage, but also their impact on Americans’ access to timely high-quality medical care.

Survey results and methodology can be found here. The Cato Institute in collaboration with YouGov conducted two health care surveys online February 22-23, 2017. The first survey interviewed 1,152 American adults with a margin of error of ± 2.93 percentage points. This survey asked about community rating. The second survey interviewed 1,103 American adults with a margin of error of ± 2.85 percentage points. This survey asked about guaranteed issue. The margin of error for items used in half-samples is approximately ± 5.1 percentage points.

March 9, 2017 7:59PM

55% of Americans Say Free Market Competition Offers “Better Way” to Provide Affordable High‐​Quality Health Care

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In his call to repeal the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, House Speaker Paul Ryan contended “there are two ways of fixing healthcare…have the government run it, ration it, and put price controls…[or] have a vibrant free market where people…go out in a free market place and buy the health care of their choosing.”

A new survey from the Cato Institute finds that 55% of Americans believe “more free market competition among insurance companies, doctors, and hospitals” offers the “better way” to provide affordable high-quality health insurance to people. In contrast, 39% say that “more government management of insurance companies, doctors, and hospitals,” would better achieve this goal.

Full Results

Respondents sort themselves along partisan lines. A majority (62%) of Democrats including leaners think that more government management of insurance companies, hospitals, and doctors is the better approach to health care reform. In contrast, majorities of non-partisan independents (57%) and Republicans including leaners (84%) think free market competition offers a better alternative.

The divide between Republicans and Democrats widens as they attain higher levels of education. Fifty percent (50%) of Democrats with high school degrees believe that free market competition would better provide high-quality affordable health care. However, this share drops to 17% among Democrats with college degrees—a 33-point swing. The share of Republicans who believe free markets better deliver high-quality affordable coverage increases from 81% among those with high school degrees to 94% among college graduates. Non-partisan independents’ attitudes don't change much with education.

These results are consistent with the theory that partisans become more likely to learn about and accept partisan cues on health care policy as they gain more political information. Independents, on the other hand, feel less inclined to accept partisan cues regardless of their political knowledge.

This is not the only survey which finds Americans prefer a free market approach to reducing costs in health care.  A Kaiser Family Foundation survey found that 51% of Americans thought free market competition would better reduce prescription drug prices than government regulation (40%).

For decades Americans have debated how to best provide access to high-quality affordable health care. Some argue that health care markets operate differently and thus require more government management to ensure people get the care they need. Others contend that, just like in other sectors, injecting free market forces into health care would incentivize lower costs, increase quality, and expand access.

These results indicate public appetite for taking a new approach to health care reform: injecting free market forces into the system in order to provide access to affordable high-quality health insurance.

Survey results and methodology can be found here. The Cato Institute in collaboration with YouGov conducted two health care surveys online February 22-23, 2017. The first survey interviewed 1,152 American adults with a margin of error of ± 2.93 percentage points. The second survey interviewed 1,103 American adults with a margin of error of ± 2.85 percentage points. The margin of error for items used in half-samples is approximately ± 5.1 percentage points.

March 2, 2017 9:00AM

New Cato Survey: Large Majorities Support Key Obamacare Provisions, Unless They Cost Something

Support for the ACA’s community-rating provisions flips from 63%-33% support to 60%-31% opposed if it harms the quality of health care. 55% say more free-market competition not government management would best deliver high-quality affordable health care. FULL RESULTS (PDF)

Most polling of the Affordable Care Act finds popular support for many of its benefits when no costs are mentioned. However, a new Cato Institute/YouGov survey finds that support plummets, even among Democrats, if its popular provisions harm the quality of health care. The poll finds that risks of higher premiums, higher taxes, or subsidies to insurers are less concerning to Americans than harm to the quality of care. 

By a margin of 63% to 33%, Americans support the ACA’s community-rating provision that prevents health insurers from charging some customers higher rates based on their medical history. However, support flips with a majority opposed 60%-31% if the provision caused the quality of health care to get worse.

Majorities also come to oppose the ACA’s community-rating provision if it increased premiums (55% oppose, 39% favor), or raised taxes (53% oppose, 40% favor). However, threats to the to quality of care appear to be a pressure point for most Americans.

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When respondents were asked follow-up questions about specific types of quality reductions, Americans turned against the ACA’s community-rating provision most if:

  • It limits access to medical tests and treatments (66% oppose, 27% favor)
  • People have to wait several months before seeing a specialist to receive medically necessary care (65% oppose, 25% favor)
  • It limits access to top rated medical facilities and treatment centers for serious illnesses (62% oppose, 31% favor).
  • If people received more surprise medical bills for services they thought were covered (64% oppose, 25% favor)

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Democrats Turn Against ACA’s Popular Provisions When Quality at Risk

Democrats are key to the shift on quality. Majorities of Democrats (58%) would be willing to pay more in health insurance premiums or pay higher taxes (60%) to prevent insurers from charging higher rates to people with preexisting conditions. But a majority would oppose (55%) this rule if it meant the quality of health care would get worse. 

Several demographic groups are less sensitive to financial costs associated with the provision. But, threats to quality narrow the gap.

For instance, 48% of Americans under 35 say they would oppose the community-rating provision if it meant their taxes would increase compared to 57% of Americans 35-54. However, two-thirds of both groups would oppose if the provision resulted in limited access to medical tests and treatments.

Americans earning above $80,000 a year (47%) are more willing than Americans making less than $40,000 a year (37%) to pay higher premiums to prevent insurers from charging higher rates to people with pre-existing conditions. However, 60% and 62% respectively would turn against the provision if it meant they’d have less access to top-rated medical facilities and treatment centers.

Quality considerations bridge the gap across partisanship, income, and age.

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Quality Concerns Move People Most on Guaranteed-Issue

We find the same pattern in the second Cato Institute/YouGov survey when asking about the ACA’s guaranteed-issue provision that requires health insurers cover anyone who applies for health insurance, including those with pre-existing conditions. Support for this provision flips from 77%-20% support, to 75%-20% opposed if it caused the quality of health care to get worse. Although majorities also come to oppose the provision if it raised premiums (60%) or taxes (55%), threats to quality result in the most dramatic shift.

By asking these questions on a separate survey, respondents were not impacted by the community-rating provision questions. Thus, we find that quality is a key pressure point for most Americans in two separate surveys.

Once again, Democrats are essential to the dramatic shift on quality. Although majorities of Democrats would be willing to pay higher taxes (60%) and higher premiums (51%), a majority would oppose (65%) the guaranteed-issue provision it caused the quality of health care to decline.

The survey also found that Americans might continue their support for the ACA’s guaranteed-issue (52%) and community-rating (47%) provisions if either required Congress to provide taxpayer subsidies to private insurance companies. This indicates that Americans distinguish between potential costs, are willing to accept some more than others, but are unwilling to sacrifice on quality.

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Dependent-Coverage Mandate

At first glance, a strong majority (72%) of Americans support a provision in the ACA that allows young adults to stay on their parents’ insurance plans until age 26, while 25% oppose. However support plummets to 38% and a majority would instead oppose (58%) if the provision cost $1,200 a year to allow young adults to stay on their parents’ insurance plan. (This number comes from a NBER study of the costs of the dependent-coverage mandate.)

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Americans Believe Free-Market Competition Offers Path Forward

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A majority (55%) of Americans say that more free-market competition among health insurers, hospitals and doctors is the “better way” to sustainably provide high-quality affordable insurance to people. Thirty-nine percent (39%) say that more government management of health insurers, doctors and hospitals would be more effective.

These results are consistent with similar polling from the Kaiser Family Foundation, which found 51% believe market competition would better reduce prescription drug prices than government regulation (40%).

Unsurprisingly, respondents line up by partisanship. A majority (59%) of Democrats believe more government management of the health care system is what’s needed while 82% of Republicans and 59% of independents believe free-market competition would be more effective.

Quality Concerns in Historical Context

The pattern of quality concerns moving public opinion the most is consistent with polling data over the past 20 years. Back in 1994, Gallup asked a similar set of questions about universal health insurance coverage. Like these results, the poll first found strong support 80%-16% for universal coverage. When Gallup asked follow-up questions, as we have done here, support declined to 55% if universal coverage raised premiums. But the poll measured the most dramatic shift against universal coverage if it were to limit the availability of health services with 69%-26% opposed. 

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Once again in 2012, the Reason-Rupe poll, which I directed at the time, asked a comparable set of questions about the ACA’s community rating provision and found the same pattern. At first, the poll found a majority (52%) who supported the provision. But 50% would oppose if it raised premiums, and 76% would oppose if it reduced health care quality.

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A CBS/New York Times July 2009 survey used a similar wording construction to the questions used in the Cato Institute poll. First, it asked if it was the federal government’s responsibility to guarantee insurance for all Americans, finding 55% in agreement. However, “if that meant the cost of your own health insurance would go up," support declined to 43%. This survey did not measure how support changed if health care quality was at risk.

These surveys demonstrate that polls presenting only the benefits of health care policies risk inflating support for such policies. Support for even the most popular provisions in the ACA drop when the public is asked to consider their likely costs in concert with the benefits. Furthermore, reductions in the quality of care, more so than premium increases, have the most significant impact on support.

Survey results and methodology can be found here. The Cato Institute in collaboration with YouGov conducted two health care surveys online February 22-23, 2017. The first survey interviewed 1,152 American adults with a margin of error of  ± 2.93 percentage points. The second survey interviewed 1,103 American adults with a margin of error of ± 2.85 percentage points. The margin of error for items used in half-samples is approximately ±  5.1 percentage points.