Tag: aca

In Fact, Prof. Reinhardt, This Is ObamaCare’s Fourth Death Spiral

Dr. Uwe Reinhardt, Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University, speaks at a Bloomberg News health-care panel discussion in Princeton, New Jersey, March 23, 2004. Photographer: Christopher Barth/ Bloomberg News.

Princeton economist Uwe Reinhardt supports ObamaCare. He also thinks the law’s health-insurance Exchanges are doomed. An exodus of insurers—lots of Exchanges are down to one carrier; Pinal County, Arizona is down to zero carriers—has taken supporters and the media by surprise. It shouldn’t. Similar laws and even ObamaCare itself have caused multiple insurance markets to collapse.

Reinhardt jokes ObamaCare’s Exchanges look like they were designed by “a bunch of Princeton undergrads.” Those Exchanges are now experiencing “a mild version” of “the death spiral that actuaries worry about.” The extreme version has happened before. “We’ve had two actual death spirals: in New Jersey and in New York,” Reinhardt explains. “New Jersey passed a law that had community rating but no mandate, so that market shrank quickly and premiums were off the wall. You look at New York and the same thing happened; they had premiums above $6,000 per month. The death spiral killed those markets.” Community rating is a system of government price controls that supposedly prohibit insurers from discriminating against people with preexisting conditions.

And it’s not just New York and New Jersey where ObamaCare-like laws have caused health insurance markets to collapse. It also happened in Kentucky, New Hampshire, and Washington State.

In fact, the death spiral Reinhardt sees in the Exchanges would itself be the fourth death spiral ObamaCare itself has caused:

  1. Before they even took effect, ObamaCare’s preexisting conditions provisions began driving insurers out of the market for child-only health insurance. Insurers ultimately exited that market in 39 states, causing the markets in 17 states to collapse.
  2. ObamaCare’s long-term care insurance program – the CLASS Act – failed to launch when the administration could not make it financially sustainable. President Obama and Congress repealed it.
  3. Exchanges effectively collapsed in every U.S. territory, again prior to launch.
  4. Now, a nationwide exodus of insurers has left one third of counties, one in six residents and seven states with only one carrier. In Pinal County, Arizona, every insurer has exited the Exchange. The exodus goes beyond greedy, for-profit insurers. It includes more than a dozen government-chartered nonprofit “co-op” plans.

When Exchanges Collapse, ObamaCare Penalizes You Even If Coverage Is Unaffordable

MIAMI, FL - NOVEMBER 02: Martha Lucia (L) sits with Rudy Figueroa, an insurance agent from Sunshine Life and Health Advisors, as she picks an insurance plan available in the third year of the Affordable Care Act at a store setup in the Mall of the Americas on November 2, 2015 in Miami, Florida. Open Enrollment began yesterday for people to sign up for a 2016 insurance plan through the Affordable Care Act. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)

In opeds at Time and National Review Online, I discuss how ObamaCare’s health-insurance Exchange has collapsed in Pinal County, Arizona, throwing some 10,000 residents out of their ObamaCare plans. Charles Gaba of ACASignUps.net and Cynthia Cox of the Kaiser Family Foundation asked me to explain a claim I make in the NRO piece:

Obamacare will still penalize those residents if they don’t buy coverage — even if the amount they must pay increases tenfold or more.

Before I explain, let me first apologize on behalf of the Affordable Care Act’s authors for the complicated mess that follows.

ObamaCare’s individual mandate penalizes taxpayers who fail to purchase health insurance. But there are so many exemptions that of the 33 million or so people who lacked insurance in 2014, the IRS levied the penalty against only 6.6 million tax filers (which actually represents a larger number, maybe 17 million people).

For example, the Affordable Care Act exempts “individuals who cannot afford coverage” from the penalty. You qualify for this exemption if your “required contribution” exceeds roughly 8.13 percent of your household income. For individuals who don’t have access to a suitable employer plan, the “required contribution” is equal to “the annual premium for the lowest cost bronze plan available in the individual market through the Exchange in the State in the rating area in which the individual resides,” minus “the amount of the credit allowable under section 36B for the taxable year (determined as if the individual was covered by a qualified health plan offered through the Exchange for the entire taxable year).” In other words, if you would have to pay more than 8.13 percent of your income for an ObamaCare plan, even after accounting for premium subsidies, then coverage is unaffordable for you and ObamaCare doesn’t penalize you for not buying coverage.

You would think this exemption would somehow apply to the 10,000 residents of Pinal County, for whom coverage will become dramatically more expensive when the Exchange collapses. If those folks are like Exchange enrollees in the rest of the country, the vast majority of them (85 percent or so) receive premium subsidies. When their Exchange coverage disappears next year, so will those subsidies. If they wish to purchase coverage off the Exchange, they will face, for the first time, the actual cost of ObamaCare coverage. Given that the amount Pinal County residents will have to pay for ObamaCare coverage could rise by several multiples, from a fraction of the premium to the full premium, given that the lowest-income enrollees will see the largest increases, given that the large year-to-year rate increases occurring nationwide will only add to the suffering, you would think the ACA’s unaffordability exemption would somehow cover those 10,000 Pinal County residents. But you would be wrong.

ObamaCare: Not Promoting Quality Care As Planned

At The Health Care Blog, Jeff Goldsmith and Bruce Henderson of Navigant Healthcare offer a grim assessment of ObamaCare’s performance that is worth quoting at length:

The historic health reform law passed by Congress and signed by President Obama in March, 2010 was widely expected to catalyze a shift in healthcare payment from “volume to value” through multiple policy changes. The Affordable Care Act’s new health exchanges were going to double or triple the individual health insurance market, channeling tens of millions of new lives into new “narrow network” insurance products expected to evolve rapidly into full risk contracts.

In addition, the Medicare Accountable Care Organization (ACO) program created by ACA would succeed in reducing costs and quickly scale up to cover the entire non-Medicare Advantage population of beneficiaries (currently about 70% of current enrollees) and transition provider payment from one-sided to global/population based risk. Finally, seeking to avoid the looming “Cadillac tax” created by ACA, larger employers would convert their group health plans to defined contribution models to cap their health cost liability, and channel tens of millions of their employees into private exchanges which would, in turn, push them into at-risk narrow networks organized around specific provider systems. 

Three Surprising Developments
Well, guess what? It is entirely possible that none of these things may actually come to pass or at least not to the degree and pace predicted. At the end of 2015, a grand total of 8.8 million people had actually paid the premiums for public exchange products, far short of the expected 21 million lives for 2016. As few as half this number may have been previously uninsured. It remains to be seen how many of the 12.7 million who enrolled in 2016’s enrollment cycle will actually pay their premiums, but the likely answer is around ten million. Public exchange enrollment has been a disappointment thus far, largely because the plans have been unattractive to those not eligible for federal subsidy. 

Moreover, even though insurers obtained deep discounts from frightened providers for the new narrow network exchange products (70% of exchange products were narrow networks), the discounts weren’t deep enough to cover the higher costs of the expensive new enrollees who signed up. Both newly launched CO-OP plans created by ACA and experienced large carriers like United and Anthem were swamped in poor insurance risks, and lost hundreds of millions on their exchange lives. As for the shifting of risk, it looks like 90% plus of these new contracts were one-sided risk only, shadowing and paying providers on the basis of fee-for-service, with bonuses for those who cut costs below spending targets. Only 10% actually penalized providers for overspending their targets.

The Medicare Accountable Care Organization/Medicare Shared Savings Program, advertised as a bold departure from conventional Medicare payment policy, has been the biggest disappointment among the raft of CMS Innovation Center initiatives. ACO/MSSP enrollment appears to have topped out at 8.3 million of Medicare’s 55 million beneficiaries. The first wave, the Pioneer ACOs, lost three-fourths of their 32 original participating organizations, including successful managed care players like HealthCare Partners, Sharp Healthcare, and Presbyterian Healthcare of New Mexico and others. The second, much larger wave of regular MSSP ACO participants lost one third of their renewal cohort. Only about one-quarter of ACO/MSSP participants generated bonuses, and those bonuses were highly concentrated in a relative handful of successful participants. 

Of the 477 Medicare ACO’s, a grand total of 52, or 11%, have downside risk, crudely analogous to capitation. As of last fall, CMS acknowledged that factoring in the 40% of ACO/MSSP members who exceeded their spending targets and the costs of the bonuses paid to the ACOs who met them, the ACO/MSSP programs have yet to generate black ink for the federal budget. And this does not count the billions care systems have spent in setting up and running their ACOs. It is extremely unlikely that the Medicare ACO program will be made mandatory, or voluntarily grow to replace DRGs and the Medicare Part B fee schedule. 

And the Cadillac Tax, that 40% tax imposed by ACA on high cost employee benefit plans, a potentially transformative event in the large group health insurance market, which was scheduled to be levied in 2018, was “postponed” for two years (to 2020) by an overwhelming Congressional vote. In the Senate, a 90-10 bipartisan majority actually voted to kill the tax outright, strongly suggesting that strong opposition from unions and large employers will prevent the tax from ever being levied. Presumptive Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton has announced her support for killing the tax. So the expected transformative event in the large group market has proven too heavy a lift for the political system. 

As a result, the enrollment of large group workers in private health exchanges, the intended off-ramp for employers with Cadillac tax problems, has arrested at about 8 million, one-fifth of a recent forecast of 40 million lives by 2018. Thus, the conversion of the enormous large group market members to narrow network products seems unlikely to happen. As a recent New York Times investigation revealed, the reports of the demise of traditional group health insurance coverage (based on broad network PPO models) have been greatly exaggerated.

Reason on the House GOP Health Plan: “Like Obamacare—Except, Possibly, Worse”

Echoing concerns I expressed last week, Reason’s Peter Suderman notices a problem with House Republicans’ new plan to replace ObamaCare:

As it turns out, the health care policy that Republicans might pursue looks, well, a lot like Obamacare—except, possibly, worse.

Rather than offer ObamaCare-lite, Congress should repeal ObamaCare and then make health care better, more affordable, and more secure by moving toward a market system.
 
Sen. Jeff Flake (R-AZ) and Rep. Dave Brat (R-VA) have introduced legislation that contains the building blocks of such an approach.

House Republican Health Plan Might Provide Even Worse Coverage For The Sick Than ObamaCare

WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 22: House Speaker Paul Ryan (R-WI) discusses the release of the House Republican plank on health care reform at The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research on June 22, 2016 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Allison Shelley/Getty Images)

After six-plus years, congressional Republicans have finally offered an ObamaCare-replacement plan. They should have taken longer. Perhaps we should not be surprised that House Republican leaders* who have thrown their support behind a presidential candidate who praises single-payer and ObamaCare’s individual mandate would not even realize that the plan cobbled together is just ObamaCare-lite. Don’t get me wrong. The plan is not all bad. Where it matters most, however, House Republicans would repeal ObamaCare only to replace it with slightly modified versions of that law’s worst provisions.

Here are some of ObamaCare’s core private-health insurance provisions that the House Republicans’ plan would retain or mimic.

  1. ObamaCare offers refundable health-insurance tax credits to low- and middle-income taxpayers who don’t have access to qualified coverage from an employer, don’t qualify for Medicare or Medicaid, and who purchase health insurance through an Exchange. House Republicans would retain these tax credits. They would still only be available to people ineligible for qualified employer coverage, Medicare, or Medicaid. But Republicans would offer them to everyone, regardless of income or where they purchase coverage.
  2. These expanded tax credits would therefore preserve much of ObamaCare’s new spending. The refundable part of “refundable tax credits” means that if you’re eligible for a tax credit that exceeds your income-tax liability, the government cuts you a check. That’s spending, not tax reduction. ObamaCare’s so-called “tax credits” spend $4 for every $1 of tax cuts. House Republicans know they are creating (preserving?) entitlement spending because they say things like, “this new payment would not be allowed to pay for abortion coverage or services,” and “Robust verification methods would be put in place to protect taxpayer dollars and quickly resolve any inconsistencies that occur,” and that their subsidies don’t grow as rapidly as the Democrats’ subsidies do. Maybe not, but they do something that Democrats’ subsidies don’t: give a bipartisan imprimatur to ObamaCare’s redistribution of income.
  3. As I have tried to warn Republicans before, these and all health-insurance tax credits are indistinguishable from an individual mandate.  Under either a tax credit or a mandate, the government requires you to buy health insurance or to pay more money to the IRS. John Goodman, the dean of conservative health policy wonks, supports health-insurance tax credits and calls them “a financial mandate.” Supporters protest that a mandate is a tax increase while credits—or at least, the non-refundable portion—are a tax cut. But that’s illusory. True, the credit may reduce the recipient’s tax liability. But it does nothing to reduce the overall tax burden imposed by the federal government, which is determined by how much the government spends. And wouldn’t you know, the refundable portion of the credit increases the overall tax burden because it increases government spending, which Congress ultimately must finance with additional taxes. So refundable tax credits do increase taxes, just like a mandate.

A New Legal Blow Against Obamacare

The federal district court sitting in D.C. yesterday handed a victory to those who believe in following statutory text, potentially halting the payment of billions of dollars to insurers under the Affordable Care Act’s entitlement “cost-sharing” provisions.

Since January 14, 2014, the Treasury Department has been authorizing payments of reimbursements to insurers providing Obamacare coverage. The problem is that Congress never appropriated the funds for those expenditures, so the transfers constitute yet another executive overreach.

Article I of the Constitution provides quite clearly that “No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law.” The “power of the purse” resides in Congress, a principle that implements the overall constitutional structure of the separation of powers and that was noted as an important bulwark against tyranny by Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist 78.

It’s a basic rule that bears repeating: the executive branch cannot disburse funds that Congress has not appropriated.

Accordingly, in a win for constitutional governance, Judge Rosemary Collyer held in House of Representatives v. Burwell that the cost-sharing reimbursements authorized under the ACA’s section 1402 must be appropriated by Congress annually, and are not assumed to be appropriated.

Judge Collyer gave a biting review of the federal government’s argument in the case: “It is a most curious and convoluted argument whose mother was undoubtedly necessity.” The Department of Health and Human Services claimed that another part of the ACA that is a permanent appropriation—section 1401, which provides tax credits—also somehow included a permanent appropriation for Section 1402. Hearkening to the late Justice Scalia’s lyrical prose, Collyer explained that the government was trying to “squeeze the elephant of Section 1402 reimbursements into the mousehole of Section 1401(d)(1).”

Indeed, this ruling is a bit of a feather in Cato’s cap as well. The legal argument that prevailed here—that the section 1402 funds cannot be disbursed without congressional appropriation—first was discussed publicly at a 2014 Cato policy forum. The lawyer who came up with the idea, David Rivkin of BakerHostetler, refined it in conjunction with his colleague Andrew Grossman, also a Cato adjunct scholar who spoke at the forum. After BakerHostetler had to withdraw from the case due to a conflict, George Washington University law professor Jonathan Turley (who also spoke at the forum) took over the case.

Judge Collyer stayed her injunction against the Treasury Department pending appeal before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. Regardless of how that court decides – as in King v. Burwell, even if there’s a favorable panel, President Obama has stacked the overall deck – the case is likely to end up before the Supreme Court. If Chief Justice Roberts sees this as a technical case (like Hobby Lobby or Zubik/Little Sisters) rather an existential one (like NFIB v. Sebelius or King), the challengers have a shot. But because Democrat-appointed justices simply will not interpret clear law in a way that hurts Obamacare, this case, like so much else, turns on the presidential election and the nominee who fills the current high-court-vacancy.

Whatever happens down that line, Judge Collyer’s succinct ruling makes a powerful statement in favor of constitutional separation of powers as a bulwark for liberty and the rule of law.

Update (June 2, 2016): It has come to my attention that this suit was conceived in a different manner than described above. As seen here, here, here, and here, it was Florida International University law professor Elizabeth Price Foley who conceived of the lawsuit and developed it with David Rivkin, both in terms of legal doctrine and amassing political support in the House. We’re proud to have Foley on the editorial board of the Cato Supreme Court Review.

Presidential Arrogance on Steroids

“Obama said ‘so sue me.’ The House did, and Obama just lost.” That’s how the Wall Street Journal sub-heads its lead editorial this morning discussing the president’s latest court loss, nailing this most arrogant of presidents who believes he can rule “by pen and phone,” ignoring Congress in the process. With an unmatched record of losses before the Supreme Court, this onetime constitutional law instructor persists in ignoring the Constitution, even when the language is crystal clear.

Article I, section 9, clause 7 of the Constitution provides that “No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law.” Not much wiggle room there. So what did the president do? He committed billions of dollars from the Treasury without the approval of Congress. In her opinion yesterday Judge Rosemary Collyer noted, the Journal reports, “that Congress had expressly not appropriated money to reimburse health insurers under Section 1402 of the Affordable Care Act. The Administration spent money on those reimbursements anyway.”

George Washington Law’s Jonathan Turley, lead counsel for the House in this case, House v. Burwell, called yesterday’s decision “a resounding victory not just for Congress but for our constitutional system as a whole. We remain a system based on the principle of the separation of powers and the guarantee that no branch or person can govern alone.”

But don’t expect the president to be any more chastened by this decision than by his many previous losses in the courts. Indeed, as he was smarting from yesterday’s loss he was preparing, the Washington Post reports, to release a letter this morning “directing schools across the nation to provide transgender students with access to suitable facilities—including bathrooms and locker rooms—that match their chosen gender identity.” And where did he get his authority for that? Not from Congress. It’s based on his reading of Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that for over half a century no one else has seen, doubtless because Title IX prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, not chosen sex. Reading Title IX as we want it to be is of a piece with reading the Constitution that way too. Thus do objectivity and the rule of law fade into the rule of man.