Over the last few years, I’ve dedicated more and more effort to righting the Fourth Amendment, which has been weakened over decades by doctrines that don’t measure up to the times.
You can see my efforts and their evolution in my American University Law Review article, “Reforming Fourth Amendment Privacy Doctrine” (2008); Cato’s brief to the Supreme Court in U.S. v. Jones (Oct. 2011), Cato’s brief to the Supreme Court in Florida v. Jardines (July 2012); my Cato Supreme Court Review article, “Escaping Fourth Amendment Doctrine After Jones: Physics, Law, and Privacy Protection (Sept. 2012); my Cato Policy Report article, “U.S. v. Jones: Fourth Amendment Law at a Crossroads” (Sept./Oct. 2012); and, most recently, Cato’s brief to the Supreme Court in In re: EPIC (August 2013).
Today, I had the opportunity to expound on my thinking at a National Press Club event hosted by the Electronic Privacy Information Center to discuss their challenge to the National Security Agency’s bulk telephone data collection. Moderator Jeffrey Rosen, recently named President and CEO of the National Constitution Center, alloted me a good deal of time, and we discussed things a little more after the session. I’m ever-sharpening my thinking about how the Fourth Amendment should operate, and how to talk about it.
The starting point is this: The “reasonable expectation of privacy” doctrine, which grew out of Katz v. United States (1967), is a failure. Courts almost never actually investigate whether a subjective “expectation of privacy” is objectively reasonable, and they’re in no position to make broad societal pronouncements on the latter question anyway. The doctrine is not a product of the Katz majority, it’s worth noting, which focused on the steps Katz had taken to conceal the sound of his voice—steps upended by government agents’ placement of a bug in a phone booth without a warrant.
The Fourth Amendment should be administered as a law once again. To administer a law protecting “[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,” you’d ask four questions: