Tag: transparency

The Transparency Contest Heats Up

Back in January, I wrote in Politico about the potential for House Republicans to “eclipse” President Obama on transparency. Perhaps the most important element of that piece was the subtle pun on the “government in the sunshine” motif. (Sunshine? Eclipse? Get it?) House Republicans appear to be more ready than ever to move forward on transparency with the announcement by Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) and Jason Chaffetz (R-UT) of a working group to update the House’s use of technology.

That could end up as so much window dressing—Twitter accounts for everybody!—or it could result in substantive changes, such as publishing bills and amendments in real time (from committee markups, too) and tagging them with semantic data to make their meaning readily and instantly available to the public. How about publishing the House video feed (committee feeds, too) with real-time tags indicating what bill is being debated and who is speaking? That kind of data will give the public entrée to the House like they’ve never had before.

Meanwhile, President Obama seems to have ducked a meeting at which he was to receive an award for his transparency work. It didn’t strike me as quite fitting for him to get such an award. He’s good on transparency but has not reached the lofty goals he campaigned on. The House Government Reform Committee is having a hearing on the Freedom of Information Act today (9:30 am EST start-time), an area where the administration seems also to have come up short of expectations.

Now, whatever miscue prevented the president from accepting his transparency award is not substance, and the formation of a task force is not substantive change either. But the Republicans appear to have the keener interest in transparency at the moment.

Watch this space for the results of work we’ve been doing to show both Congress and the president how to be more transparent. So the irony is not lost on you the way that sunshine/eclipse pun was, I’ll put it in italics: You can’t see our transparency work quite yet. But soon we’ll set out what House Republicans, Senate Democrats and the Obama administration should be doing to win plaudits on the transparency merits.

Accountability in the New Congress

Just over a week ago, Politico ran a story noting that Justin Amash, a newly-elected House member from Michigan, had already voted “present” more often than his predecessor had in eight years. The story suggested that Amash was trying to avoid electoral responsibility for tough votes by voting present. In general, the story suggested that his “present” votes were a failure in some way to meet his responsibilities as a representative.

You can read Amash’s take on all this at his Facebook page. Although I have never met Amash, I have followed his political career over the past year or so. In Michigan, he emphasized  transparency and accountability. He reported and explained his votes on his Facebook page. He is continuing to do that here in Washington. Does that sound like a politician trying to avoid accountability?

Politico also reported some of Amash’s reasons for voting “present”: when he does not have “reasonable” time to review the legislation, when called upon to choose “between programs he hasn’t been given time to study,” when he has “procedural or constitutional concerns about a piece of legislation that has desirable ends,” and when he has a “substantial conflict of interest” — a situation that has not yet happened.

Amash sounds like a representative trying to take his obligations seriously. Apparently he feels he owes his constituents his best judgment about bills before the House and, absent enough time, he refuses to delegate his judgment to party elders or to mere caprice. It says something about the culture of the capital that Amash’s sense of fidelity to those who elected him occasions complaint.

The latest from Politico on Justin Amash confirms this impression. Among House GOP freshmen, he is the least likely to vote for the position taken by a majority of his class. That might be cause for concern since the GOP freshmen seem intent on cutting government spending. But I really doubt that Amash has gone native in DC. He is voting with the other GOP freshmen 70 percent of the time. It is possible that the other 30 percent of his votes reflect a concern for liberty or what he sees as the good of his constituents. Sometimes there is a great difference between being a party man and being a friend of liberty and a faithful representative.

More than a few Washington insiders are probably saying Amash is off to a rough start in his congressional career. I disagree. What I have seen so far, including these criticisms of him, confirm what I have thought for some time: Justin Amash is one of the most interesting and potentially important representatives to come to DC in a long time.

Sunlight Before Signing—-Graphed and Analyzed

I reported here a couple of weeks ago that at the mid-point of his term President Obama had narrowly exceeded 50% compliance with his Sunlight Before Signing pledge. Now it’s time to do some more analysis of how he has implemented his promise to post bills Congress sends him online for five days before signing them.

In a post late last year, I graphed the president’s improvement over time. His first year in office was dismal, but things got quite a bit better in the second year.

We can now graph the entire first half of the term, which confirms that improvement. (Click graphs for full-size images.) Compliance could easily have been better in December, but the graph shows 100% success in the first twenty days of January, which brings us to the exact mid-point of the term.

Now, 87 of the bills signed into law during the last Congress renamed a post office or other federal facility, and a couple dozen more were purely ceremonial or perfunctory. (Congress has a strange fixation on coins.) These matter quite a bit less than the bills that have a significant effect on government policy, and many passed at the end of the year. This raises the question: Do these “gimmes” inflate the president’s success rate?

So I cast around for some way to adjust the graph to reflect the “importance” of legislation. This might show us that the trivial bills get tanned and rested in sunlight, while the important ones are hustled through in the dark of night—fat and pale.

I thought of two potential proxies for importance: the attention Congress paid bills on their way through, and the number of pages in bills.

Sixty percent of the bills Congress passes go through without a final vote on passage in either house. Trivial bills regularly fly through the House on a voice vote. In the Senate it’s most often unanimous consent. Sometimes one house or the other takes a vote. It’s usually the House taking what’s called “suspension” vote. (“Suspension of the rules” is a procedure for fast-tracking non-controversial bills.)

In the number of votes taken on a bill, we have a rough proxy—very rough—for importance. Generally, a bill subject to one vote on final passage is more important than one subjected to no vote. And in general a bill subjected to two passage votes is more important than a bill subjected to just one or zero votes.

So I took the bill counts you see graphed in the first chart and used a multiplier on “bills presented” to show importance according to this proxy. The bills getting no vote got one point, bills getting one vote counted as two points, and bills getting two votes counted as three points.

The results, as you can see to the right are pretty similar. “Importance” as reflected in congressional voting doesn’t change things much.

But sometimes Congress forgoes votes on important bills. It’s hard to be sure exactly why, but it’s probably because the political balancing is so sensitive. (Public Law 111-8, the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, is an example. It got no vote in the House or Senate, though it contained hundreds of pages of instructions about how hundreds of billions of dollars would be spent.) Maybe there is no change between the two graphs because Congress and the president think alike about hustling through important bills.

So what about page counts? The number of pages in a bill is a second proxy for importance—one that Congress and the president can’t mask by treating certain bills with equal haste. It’s generally true that a higher page-count means that a bill has greater importance to the country. Obamacare was 906 pages.

This proxy is not 100% accurate. Public Law 111-322, the Continuing Appropriations and Surface Transportation Extensions Act, 2011, spent about $7,500 per U.S. family in just 14 pages of bill text. Using page-counts probably underweights its importance.

A graph showing the number of pages given sunlight versus the number of pages not given sunlight looks quite different.

It doesn’t upend the story that the Obama administration improved on Sunlight Before Signing over time—it did. But it shows that Congress and the president were more aggressive during the early part of the 111th Congress. During the latter stages, their ambitions dropped while the president began to execute on his “good government” Sunlight Before Signing promise.

March and October 2009 were two months when the president’s failure on Sunlight Before Signing are acute. Around 900 pages of legislative text didn’t get the public airing the president had promised.

But March 2010 is the stand-out in this chart. At this time, the president had begun to implement Sunlight Before Signing. He was 4 for 12 overall that month. The most significant legislation of his term so far—Obamacare—was not handled consistent with the ideals on which he based his candidacy for president, and the chart shows it. (I didn’t start in looking to reach this conclusion. It’s what I found when I went to see what the big bill was that passed in March.)

Notably, a few months later in July, the president’s remvamp of financial services regulation did get the Sunlight Before Signing treatment. Sunlight is not the death knell for the president’s priorities, of course. It’s a campaign promise he made. Steady execution on it would allow the people to develop the good civic habit of observing what goes on in Washington, D.C. rather than just throwing up their hands. This is likely to reduce demand for government—as a matter of consensus, not just because libertarians were more clever, more media savvy, or politically active over a given stretch of time.

My thanks to the Cato interns who helped with the data-collection drudgery. We’ll keep watching Sunlight Before Signing.

Sunlight Before Signing at Mid-Term—Above 50%!

During his campaign for the presidency, then-Senator Barack Obama (D-Ill.) said he would post the bills Congress sent him online for five days before signing them. It was a basic transparency promise that would help prevent rushed legislation containing parochial amendments, unexamined earmarks, and errors. This and other promises brought hails of applause.

It was his first broken promise. President Obama signed the “Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009” into law the day after it reached him.

I’ve tracked the promise on this blog, and in my November post noted President Obama’s improvement in 2010 over what can only be characterized as a lousy start. In the first year of his term, 2009, the president received 124 bills from Congress and signed a dismal 6 of them—only 4.8%.

On January 20, we reached the mid-point of President Obama’s term, and his mid-term Sunlight Before Signing stats can be announced. With a strong showing on the flurry of bills passed at the end of the 111th Congress, the president’s Sunlight Before Signing percentage has inched just above 50%.

Of 381 bills that should have been posted on Whitehouse.gov after President Obama received them, 192 were actually posted. That’s 50.393% if you like going beyond the decimal.

Here’s a summary table, showing year-by-year the bills presented, the one emergency bill not subject to posting, and bills properly posted. After the jump, you can see bill-by-bill how the president did with Sunlight Before Signing.

  Number of Bills Emergency Bills Bills Posted Five Days
2009 124 0 6
2010 258 1 186
Overall 382 1 192

Sunlight Before Signing, Bill-by-Bill

Public Law Date Presented Date Signed Posted [(Linked)]? Posted Five Days?
P.L. 111-2, The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 1/28/2009 1/29/2009 1/29/2009* No
P.L. 111-3, The Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 2/4/2009 2/4/2009 (2/1/2009)* No
P.L. 111-4, The DTV Delay Act 2/9/2009 2/11/2009 2/5/2009* Yes †
P.L. 111-5, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 2/16/2009 2/17/2009 (2/13/2009)* No
P.L. 111-6, Making further continuing appropriations for fiscal year 2009, and for other purposes 3/6/2009 3/6/2009 No No
P.L. 111-7, A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2105 East Cook Street in Springfield, Illinois, as the “Colonel John H. Wilson, Jr. Post Office Building” 2/26/09 3/9/2009 No No
P.L. 111-8, The Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 3/11/2009 3/11/2009 (3/5/2009)* No
P.L. 111-9, To extend certain immigration programs 3/18/2009 3/20/2009 (3/19/2009)* No
P.L. 111-10, To provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 3/19/2009 3/20/2009 (3/19/2009)* No
P.L. 111-11, The Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 3/30/2009 3/30/2009 (3/27/2009)* No
P.L. 111-12, The Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2009 3/24/2009 3/30/2009 (3/24/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-13, The Generations Invigorating Volunteerism and Education Act 4/20/2009 4/21/2009 No No
P.L. 111-14, To designate the United States courthouse under construction at 327 South Church Street, Rockford, Illinois, as the “Stanley J. Roszkowski United States Courthouse” 4/14/2009 4/23/2009 No No
P.L. 111-15, The Special Inspector General for the Troubled Asset Relief Program Act of 2009 4/14/2009 4/24/2009 (3/27/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-16, The Statutory Time-Periods Technical Amendments Act of 2009 4/30/2009 5/7/2009 (4/29/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-17, A joint resolution providing for the appointment of David M. Rubenstein as a citizen regent of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 4/28/2009 5/7/2009 (4/23/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-18, A bill to repeal section 10(f) of Public Law 93-531, commonly known as the “Bennett Freeze” 4/28/2009 5/8/2009 (4/23/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-19, The Civil Rights History Project Act of 2009 4/30/2009 5/12/2009 (4/29/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-20, The Protecting Incentives for the Adoption of Children with Special Needs Act of 2009 5/5/2009 5/15/2009 (5/5/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-21, The FERA 5/19/2009 5/20/2009 (5/15/2009)* No
P.L. 111-22, The Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 5/20/2009 5/22/2009 (5/20/2009)* No
P.L. 111-23, The Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009 5/21/2009 5/22/2009 5/14/2009* No
P.L. 111-24, The Credit Cardholders’ Bill of Rights Act of 2009 5/20/2009 5/22/2009 5/15/2009* No
P.L. 111-25, The Ronald Reagan Centennial Commission Act 5/21/2009 6/2/2009 (5/28/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-26, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 12877 Broad Street in Sparta, Georgia, as the “Yvonne Ingram-Ephraim Post Office Building” 6/9/2009 6/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-27, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 300 East 3rd Street in Jamestown, New York, as the “Stan Lundine Post Office Building” 6/9/2009 6/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-28, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 103 West Main Street in McLain, Mississippi, as the “Major Ed W. Freeman Post Office” 6/9/2009 6/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-29, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 3245 Latta Road in Rochester, New York, as the “Brian K. Schramm Post Office Building” 6/9/2009 6/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-30, The Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act of 2004 Extension Act 6/19/2009 6/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-31, The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 6/16/2009 6/22/2009 (6/12/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-32, The Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009 6/19/2009 6/24/2009 (5/20/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-33, The Native American Heritage Day Act of 2009 6/16/2009 6/26/2009 (6/16/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-34, To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 306 East Main Street in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, as the “J. Herbert W. Small Federal Building and United States Courthouse” 6/19/2009 6/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-35, To designate the Federal building located at 799 United Nations Plaza in New York, New York, as the “Ronald H. Brown United States Mission to the United Nations Building” 6/19/2009 6/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-36, The Webcaster Settlement Act of 2009 6/19/2009 6/30/2009 (6/19/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-37, The Veterans’ Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustment Act of 2009 6/25/2009 6/30/2009 (6/25/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-38, A bill to provide additional personnel authorities for the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 6/24/2009 6/30/2009 (6/19/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-39, To make technical corrections to the Higher Education Act of 1965, and for other purposes 6/26/2009 7/1/2009 (6/26/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-40, A bill to award a Congressional Gold Medal to the Women Airforce Service Pilots (”WASP”) 6/24/2009 7/1/2009 (6/29/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-41, The Korean War Veterans Recognition Act 7/27/2009 7/27/2009 (7/25/2009)* No
P.L. 111-42, Approving the renewal of import restrictions contained in the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, and for other purposes 7/27/2009 7/28/2009 No No
P.L. 111-43, A bill to provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 7/30/2009 7/31/2009 No No
P.L. 111-44, The New Frontier Congressional Gold Medal Act 7/27/2009 8/7/2009 (7/27/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-45, To authorize the Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office to use funds made available under the Trademark Act of 1946 for patent operations in order to avoid furloughs and reductions-in-force, and for other purposes 7/27/2009 8/7/2009 (7/27/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-46, To restore sums to the Highway Trust Fund, and for other purposes 8/4/2009 8/7/2009 (8/5/09) No
P.L. 111-47, Making supplemental appropriations for fiscal year 2009 for the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save Program 8/6/2009 8/7/2009 (8/5/2009) No
P.L. 111-48, The Miami Dade College Land Conveyance Act 7/31/2009 8/12/2009 (7/31/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-49, The Judicial Survivors Protection Act of 2009 8/3/2009 8/12/2009 (8/5/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-50, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 46-02 21st Street in Long Island City, New York, as the “Geraldine Ferraro Post Office Building” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-51, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 601 8th Street in Freedom, Pennsylvania, as the “John Scott Challis, Jr. Post Office” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-52, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2351 West Atlantic Boulevard in Pompano Beach, Florida, as the “Elijah Pat Larkins Post Office Building” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-53, The Utah Recreational Land Exchange Act of 2009 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 (8/11/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-54, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 41 Purdy Avenue in Rye, New York, as the “Caroline O’Day Post Office Building” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-55, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 431 State Street in Ogdensburg, New York, as the “Frederic Remington Post Office Building” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-56, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 123 11th Avenue South in Nampa, Idaho, as the “Herbert A Littleton Postal Station” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-57, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1300 Matamoros Street in Laredo, Texas, as the “Laredo Veterans Post Office” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-58, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 702 East University Avenue in Georgetown, Texas, as the “Kyle G. West Post Office Building” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-59, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 19190 Cochran Boulevard FRNT in Port Charlotte, Florida, as the “Lieutenant Commander Roy H. Boehm Post Office Building” 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-60, To extend the deadline for commencement of construction of a hydroelectric project 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 (8/11/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-61, Recognizing the service, sacrifice, honor, and professionalism of the Noncommissioned Officers of the United States Army 8/11/2009 8/19/2009 (8/11/09) No ‡
P.L. 111-62, A joint resolution granting the consent and approval of Congress to amendments made by the State of Maryland, the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the District of Columbia to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Regulation Compact 8/7/2009 8/19/2009 (8/7/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-63, The WIPA and PABSS Reauthorization Act of 2009 9/10/2009 9/18/2009 (9/10/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-64, A joint resolution providing for the appointment of France A. Cordova as a citizen regent of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 9/11/2009 9/18/2009 (9/11/09) No ‡
P.L. 111-65, To provide for the award of a gold medal on behalf of Congress to Arnold Palmer in recognition of his service to the Nation in promoting excellence and good sportsmanship in golf 9/21/2009 9/30/2009 (9/21/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-66, To provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 9/30/2009 9/30/2009 (9/30/2009) No
P.L. 111-67, The Defense Production Act Reauthorization of 2009 9/24/2009 9/30/2009 (9/24/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-68, The Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010 9/30/2009 10/1/2009 (10/1/2009)
and
(10/23/09)
No
P.L. 111-69, The Fiscal Year 2010 Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act 9/30/2009 10/1/2009 (9/30/2009) No
P.L. 111-70, To amend the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 to reauthorize the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy 9/30/2009 10/9/2009 (10/1/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-71, To amend the United States International Broadcasting Act of 1994 to extend by one year the operation of Radio Free Asia, and for other purposes 9/30/2009 10/9/2009 (10/1/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-72, To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to delay the date on which the accreditation requirement under the Medicare Program applies to suppliers of durable medical equipment that are pharmacies 10/7/2009 10/13/2009 (10/7/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-73, The Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act of 2009 10/5/2009 10/15/2009 (10/2/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-74, To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at McKinley Avenue and Third Street, SW., Canton, Ohio, as the “Ralph Regula Federal Building and United States Courthouse” 10/7/2009 10/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-75, To designate the United States courthouse located at 525 Magoffin Avenue in El Paso, Texas, as the “Albert Armendariz, Sr., United States Courthouse” 10/7/2009 10/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-76, To provide for the transfer of certain Federal Property to the Galveston Historical Foundation 10/7/2009 10/19/2009 (10/7/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-77, To designate the Federal building located at 844 North Rush Street in Chicago, Illinois, as the “William O. Lipinski Federal Building” 10/7/2009 10/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-78, To designate the United States courthouse located at 301 Simonton Street in Key West, Florida, as the “Sidney M. Aronovitz United States Courthouse” 10/7/2009 10/19/2009 No No
P.L. 111-79, The Foreign Evidence Request Efficiency Act of 2009 10/7/2009 10/19/2009 (10/7/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-80, The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010 10/16/2009 10/21/2009 (10/9/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-81, The Veterans Health Care Budget Reform and Transparency Act of 2009 10/16/2009 10/22/2009 (10/16/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-82, A bill to authorize major medical facility leases for the Department of Veterans Affairs for fiscal year 2010, and for other purposes 10/15/2009 10/26/2009 No No
P.L. 111-83, The Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2010 10/22/2009 10/28/2009 (10/9/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-84, The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 10/26/2009 10/28/2009 (10/21/2009)* No
P.L. 111-85, The Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010 10/21/2009 10/28/2009 (10/21/2009)* No
P.L. 111-86, The Girl Scouts USA Centennial Commemorative Coin Act 10/22/2009 10/29/2009 (10/21/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-87, The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 10/26/2009 10/30/2009 (10/21/2009)* No
P.L. 111-88, The Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010 10/30/2009 10/30/2009 (10/28/2009)* No
P.L. 111-89, A bill to provide for additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 10/30/2009 10/30/2009 (10/29/2009) No
P.L. 111-90, The Morris K. Udall Scholarship and Excellence in National Environmental Policy Amendments Act of 2009 10/22/2009 11/3/2009 (10/22/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-91, The Medal of Honor Commemorative Coin Act of 2009 10/29/2009 11/6/2009 (10/29/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-92, The Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2009 11/5/2009 11/6/2009 (11/5/2009) No
P.L. 111-93, The Credit CARD Technical Corrections Act of 2009 10/30/2009 11/6/2009 (10/30/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-94, Proclaiming Casimir Pulaski to be an honorary citizen of the United States posthumously 10/29/2009 11/6/2009 (10/29/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-95, A bill to amend title 36, United States Code, to grant a Federal charter to the Military Officers Association of America, and for other purposes 10/30/2009 11/6/2009 (10/30/2009)* No ‡
P.L. 111-96, A bill to allow the funding for the interoperable emergency communications grant program established under the Digital Television Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005 to remain available until expended through fiscal year 2012, and for other purposes 10/30/2009 11/6/2009 (10/30/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-97, The Military Spouses Residency Relief Act 11/4/2009 11/11/2009 (11/4/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-98, A bill to authorize a major medical facility project at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Walla, Walla, Washington, and for other purposes 11/4/2009 11/11/2009 No No
P.L. 111-99, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 10355 Northeast Valley Road in Rollingbay, Washington, as the “John ‘Bud’ Hawk Post Office” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-100, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 37926 Church Street in Dade City, Florida, as the “Sergeant Marcus Mathes Post Office” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-101, To name the South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture in Lane, Oklahoma, and the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 310 North Perry Street in Bennington, Oklahoma, in honor of former Congressman Wesley “Wes” Watkins 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-102, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 4282 Beach Street in Akron, Michigan, as the “Akron Veterans Memorial Post Office” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-103, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 140 Merriman Road in Garden City, Michigan, as the “John J. Shivnen Post Office Building” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-104, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1615 North Wilcox Avenue in Los Angeles, California, as the “Johnny Grant Hollywood Post Office Building” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-105, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 115 West Edward Street in Erath, Louisiana, as the “Conrad DeRouen, Jr. Post Office” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-106, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 867 Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, as the “Lim Poon Lee Post Office” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-107, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1165 2nd Avenue in Des Moines, Iowa, as the “Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Memorial Post Office” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-108, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 936 South 250 East in Provo, Utah, as the “Rex E. Lee Post Office Building” 11/20/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-109, A bill to redesignate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2777 Logan Avenue in San Diego, California, as the “Cesar E. Chavez Post Office” 11/19/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-110, A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 60 School Street, Orchard Park, New York, as the “Jack F. Kemp Post Office Building” 11/19/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-111, A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 630 Northeast Killingsworth Avenue in Portland, Oregon, as the “Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Post Office” 11/19/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-112, A bill to extend the authority for relocation expenses test programs for Federal employees, and for other purposes 11/19/2009 11/30/2009 No No
P.L. 111-113, A bill to amend title 36, United States Code, to include in the Federal charter of the Reserve Officers Association leadership positions newly added in its constitution and bylaws 12/2/2009 12/14/2009 (12/2/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-114, A bill to permit each current member of the Board of Directors of the Office of Compliance to serve for 3 terms 12/2/2009 12/14/2009 (12/2/2009) No ‡
P.L. 111-115, To amend titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act to prohibit retroactive payments to individuals during periods for which such individuals are prisoners, fugitive felons, or probation or parole violators 12/14/2009 12/15/2009 No No
P.L. 111-116, To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to extend the funding and expenditure authority of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund, to amend title 49, United States Code, to extend authorizations for the airport improvement program, and for other purposes 12/14/2009 12/16/2009 (12/14/2009) No
P.L. 111-117, The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 12/15/2009 12/16/2009 (12/15/2009) No
P.L. 111-118, Making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2010, and for other purposes 12/19/2009 12/19/2009 (12/19/2009) No
P.L. 111-119, A bill to amend the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to clarify the eligibility requirements with respect to airline flight crews 12/9/2009 12/21/2009 (12/11/2009) Yes
P.L. 111-120, To extend through December 31, 2010, the authority of the Secretary of the Army to accept and expend funds contributed by non-Federal public entities to expedite the processing of permits 12/14/2009 12/22/2009 (12/14/2009) Yes
P.L. 111-121, Appointing the day for the convening of the second session of the One Hundred Eleventh Congress 12/16/2009 12/22/2009 (12/16/2009) Yes
P.L. 111-122, A bill to establish a section within the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice to enforce human rights laws, to make technical and conforming amendments to criminal and immigration laws pertaining to human rights violations, and for other purposes 12/17/2009 12/22/2009 (12/17/2009) Yes
P.L. 111-123, To permit continued financing of Government operations 12/24/2009 12/28/2009 (12/25/2009) No
P.L. 111-124, To extend the Generalized System of Preferences and the Andean Trade Preference Act, and for other purposes 12/23/2009 12/28/2009 (12/23/2009) Yes
P.L. 111-125, To extend the commercial space transportation liability regime 12/24/2009 12/28/2009 (12/25/2009) No
P.L. 111-126, To accelerate the income tax benefits for charitable cash contributions for the relief of victims of the earthquake in Haiti 01/22/2010 01/22/2010 (01/22/2010) No
P.L. 111-127, The Emergency Aid to American Survivors of the Haiti Earthquake Act 01/27/2010 01/27/2010 n/a E! n/a E!
P.L. 111-128, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 116 North West Street in Somerville, Tennessee, as the “John S. Wilder Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-129, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 76 Brookside Avenue in Chester, New York, as the “1st Lieutenant Louis Allen Post Office” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-130, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 9810 Halls Ferry Road in St. Louis, Missouri, as the “Coach Jodie Bailey Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-131, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 440 South Gulling Street in Portola, California, as the “Army Specialist Jeremiah Paul McCleery Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-132, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 427 Harrison Avenue in Harrison, New Jersey, as the “Patricia D. McGinty-Juhl Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-133, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 16555 Springs Street in White Springs, Florida, as the “Clyde L. Hillhouse Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-134, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 170 North Main Street in Smithfield, Utah, as the “W. Hazen Hillyard Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-135, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 3900 Darrow Road in Stow, Ohio, as the “Corporal Joseph A. Tomci Post Office Building” 01/20/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-136, To provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 01/29/2010 01/29/2010 No No
P.L. 111-137, To amend title 38, United States Code, to expand veteran eligibility for reimbursement by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for emergency treatment furnished in a non-Department facility, and for other purposes 01/20/2010 02/01/2010 (01/20/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-138, A bill to provide that claims of the United States to certain documents relating to Franklin Delano Roosevelt shall be treated as waived and relinquished in certain circumstances 01/22/2010 02/01/2010 No No
P.L. 111-139, Increasing the statutory limit on the public debt 02/04/2010 02/12/2010 No No
P.L. 111-140, The Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act 02/04/2010 02/16/2010 No No
P.L. 111-141, An Act to extend expiring provisions of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 until February 28, 2011 02/26/2010 02/27/2010 (02/26/2010) No
P.L. 111-142, The Social Security Disability Applicants’ Access to Professional Representation Act of 2010 02/25/2010 02/27/2010 (02/25/2010) No
P.L. 111-143, The Criminal History Background Checks Pilot Extension Act of 2009 02/17/2010 03/01/2010 No No
P.L. 111-144, The Temporary Extension Act of 2010 03/02/2010 03/02/2010 (03/03/2010) No
P.L. 111-145, The Capitol Police Administrative Technical Corrections Act of 2009 03/04/2010 03/04/2010 (02/26/2010)* No
P.L. 111-146, The Trademark Technical and Conforming Amendment Act of 2010 03/17/2010 03/17/2010 (03/05/2010) Yes †
P.L. 111-147, The Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act 03/17/2010 03/18/2010 (03/18/2010)* No
P.L. 111-148, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 03/22/2010 03/23/2010 (03/14/2010)* No
P.L. 111-149, To amend the North American Wetlands Conservation Act to establish requirements regarding payment of the non-Federal share of the costs of wetlands conservation projects in Canada that are funded under that Act, and for other purposes 03/15/2010 03/25/2010 (03/15/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-150, P.L. 111-150, To permit the use of previously appropriated funds to extend the Small Business Loan Guarantee Program, and for other purposes 03/26/2010 03/26/2010 No No
P.L. 111-151, The Satellite Television Extension Act of 2010 03/26/2010 03/26/2010 No No
P.L. 111-152, The Reconciliation Act of 2010 03/30/2010 03/30/2010 No No
P.L. 111-153, The Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 03/26/2010 03/31/2010 (03/26/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-154, The PACT Act 03/19/2010 03/31/2010 (03/18/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-155, The Prevent Deceptive Census Look Alike Mailings Act 04/01/2010 04/07/2010 No No
P.L. 111-156, Recognizing and honoring the Blinded Veterans Association on its 65th anniversary of representing blinded veterans and their families 04/01/2010 04/07/2010 No No
P.L. 111-157, The Continuing Extension Act of 2010 04/15/2010 04/15/2010 No No
P.L. 111-158, The Debt Relief for Earthquake Recovery in Haiti Act of 2010 04/15/2010 04/26/2010 (04/15/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-159, To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to ensure that health coverage provided by the Department of Defense is treated as minimal essential coverage 04/14/2010 04/26/2010 (04/14/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-160, A joint resolution granting the consent and approval of Congress to amendments made by the State of Maryland, the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the District of Columbia to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Regulation Compact 04/16/2010 04/26/2010 (04/16/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-161, The Airport and Airway Extension Act of 2010 04/29/2010 04/30/2010 (04/29/2010)* No
P.L. 111-162, A bill to provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 04/29/2010 04/30/2010 (04/29/2010)* No
P.L. 111-163, The Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2009 04/27/2010 05/05/2010 (04/23/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-164, To designate the Department of Veterans Affairs blind rehabilitation center in Long Beach, California, as the “Major Charles R. Soltes, Jr., O.D. Department of Veterans Affairs Blind Rehabilitation Center” 04/26/2010 05/07/2010 (04/26/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-165, To provide that Members of Congress shall not receive a cost of living adjustment in pay during fiscal year 2011 05/03/2010 05/14/2010 (05/03/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-166, The Daniel Pearl Freedom of the Press Act of 2009 05/06/2010 05/17/2010 (05/06/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-167, The Blue Ridge Parkway and Town of Blowing Rock Land Exchange Act of 2009 05/13/2010 05/24/2010 (05/13/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-168, To provide for the sale of the Federal Government’s reversionary interest in approximately 60 acres of land in Salt Lake City, Utah, originally conveyed to the Mount Olivet Cemetery Association under the Act of January 23, 1909 05/13/2010 05/24/2010 (05/13/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-169, To provide for an extension of the legislative authority of the Adams Memorial Foundation to establish a commemorative work in honor of former President John Adams and his legacy, and for other purposes 05/13/2010 05/24/2010 (05/13/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-170, To amend title 39, United States Code, to clarify the instances in which the term “census” may appear on mailable matter 05/13/2010 05/24/2010 (05/13/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-171, The Haiti Economic Lift Program Act of 2010 05/13/2010 05/24/2010 (05/13/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-172, The Lord’s Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act of 2009 05/17/2010 05/24/2010 (05/18/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-173, To clarify the health care provided by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs that constitutes minimum essential coverage 05/21/2010 05/27/2010 (05/21/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-174, The Federal Judiciary Administrative Improvements Act of 2009 05/21/2010 05/27/2010 (05/21/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-175, The Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 05/17/2010 05/27/2010 (05/18/2010)* Yes
P.L. 111-176, To designate the Department of the Interior Building in Washington, District of Columbia, as the “Stewart Lee Udall Department of the Interior Building” 05/28/2010 06/08/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-177, The Extending Immunities to the Office of the High Representative and the International Civilian Office in Kosovo Act of 2010 05/27/2010 06/08/2010 (05/27/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-178, The FBI Families of Fallen Heroes Act 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-179, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1210 West Main Street in Riverhead, New York, as the “Private First Class Garfield M. Langhorn Post Office Building” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-180, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 109 Main Street in Swifton, Arkansas, as the “George Kell Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-181, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 101 West Highway 64 Bypass in Roper, North Carolina, as the “E.V. Wilkins Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-182, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 43 Maple Avenue in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, as the “Ann Marie Blute Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-183, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 9727 Antioch Road in Overland Park, Kansas, as the “Congresswoman Jan Meyers Post Office Building” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-184, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 7464 Highway 503 in Hickory, Mississippi, as the “Sergeant Matthew L. Ingram Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-185, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 45300 Portola Avenue in Palm Desert, California, as the “Roy Wilson Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-186, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 930 39th Avenue in Greeley, Colorado, as the “W.D. Farr Post Office Building” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-187, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2-116th Street in North Troy, New York, as the “Martin G. ‘Marty’ Mahar Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-188, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 119 Station Road in Cheyney, Pennsylvania, as the “Captain Luther H. Smith, U.S. Army Air Forces Post Office” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-189, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 216 Westwood Avenue in Westwood, New Jersey, as the “Sergeant Christopher R. Hrbek Post Office Building” 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-190, To amend the Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act of 2004 to extend the operation of such Act for a 5-year period ending June 22, 2015, and for other purposes 06/01/2010 06/09/2010 (06/01/2010) Yes
P.L. 111-191, A bill to amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to authorize advances from Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 06/14/2010 06/15/2010 (06/10/2010) No
P.L. 111-192, The Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act 06/24/2010 06/25/2010 No No
P.L. 111-193, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2000 Louisiana Avenue in New Orleans, Louisiana, as the “Roy Rondeno, Sr. Post Office Building” 06/17/2010 06/28/2010 [06/17/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-194, A joint resolution to provide for the reconsideration and revision of the proposed constitution of the United States Virgin Islands to correct provisions inconsistent with the Constitution and Federal law 06/30/2010 06/30/2010 No No
P.L. 111-195, Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 06/28/2010 07/01/2010 [06/24/2010] No
P.L. 111-196, National Flood Insurance Program Extension Act of 2010 07/01/2010 07/02/2010 No No
P.L. 111-197, Airport and Airway Extension Act of 2010, Part II 07/01/2010 07/02/2010 No No
P.L. 111-198, Homebuyer Assistance and Improvement Act of 2010 07/01/2010 07/02/2010 No No
P.L. 111-199, Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act 06/25/2010 07/07/2010 [06/25/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-200, Congressional Award Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 06/25/2010 07/07/2010 [06/25/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-201, Recognizing the 60th anniversary of the outbreak of the Korean War and reaffirming the United States-Korea alliance 06/25/2010 07/07/2010 [06/25/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-202, To permanently authorize Radio Free Asia, and for other purposes 07/01/2010 07/13/2010 [07/01/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-203, Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 07/15/2010 07/21/2010 [06/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-204, Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Act of 2010 07/20/2010 07/22/2010 [07/15/2010] Yes †
P.L. 111-205, Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2010 07/22/2010 07/22/2010 [07/15/2010] No
P.L. 111-206, Shasta-Trinity National Forest Administrative Jurisdiction Transfer Act 07/19/2010 07/27/2010 [07/19/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-207, Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010 07/19/2010 07/27/2010 [07/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-208, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1981 Cleveland Avenue in Columbus, Ohio, as the `Clarence D. Lumpkin Post Office’ 07/19/2010 07/27/2010 [07/19/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-209, To amend the effective date of the gift card provisions of the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 07/15/2010 07/27/2010 [07/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-210, Approving the renewal of import restrictions contained in the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 07/27/2010 07/27/2010 [07/27/2010] No
P.L. 111-211, To protect Indian arts and crafts through the improvement of applicable criminal proceedings, and for other purposes 07/27/2010 07/29/2010 [07/23/2010] Yes †
P.L. 111-212, Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 07/29/2010 07/29/2010 (03/24/2010) No
P.L. 111-213, Independent Living Centers Technical Adjustment Act 07/29/2010 07/29/2010 [07/29/2010] No
P.L. 111-214, To provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 07/28/2010 07/30/2010 No No
P.L. 111-215, A bill to modify the date on which the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and applicable States may require permits for discharges from certain vessels 07/30/2010 07/30/2010 No No
P.L. 111-216, The Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 07/30/2010 08/1/2010 No No
P.L. 111-217, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1343 West Irving Park Road in Chicago, Illinois, as the “Steve Goodman Post Office Building” 07/22/2010 08/03/2010 [07/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-218, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 23 Genesee Street in Hornell, New York, as the “Zachary Smith Post Office Building” 07/22/2010 08/03/2010 [07/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-219, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 15 South Main Street in Sharon, Massachusetts, as the “Michael C. Rothberg Post Office” 07/22/2010 08/03/2010 [07/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-220, The Fair Sentencing Act of 2009 07/29/2010 08/03/2010 [07/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-221, The National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal Act of 2009 07/27/2010 08/06/2010 [07/27/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-222, A bill to amend the National Law Enforcement Museum Act to extend the termination date 07/27/2010 08/06/2010 [07/27/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-223, To amend title 28, United States Code, to prohibit recognition and enforcement of foreign defamation judgments and certain foreign judgments against the providers of interactive computer services 07/29/2010 08/10/2010 [07/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-224, The United States Patent and Trademark Office Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 07/30/2010 08/10/2010 [08/02/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-225, The Cell Phone Contraband Act of 2009 07/29/2010 08/10/2010 [07/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-226, The XXXXXX Act of XXXX 08/10/2010 08/10/2010 [08/05/2010] No
P.L. 111-227, The Miscellaneous Trade and Technical Corrections Act of 2009 07/30/2010 08/11/2010 [08/02/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-228, The General and Special Risk Insurance Funds Availability Act of 2010 08/10/2010 08/11/2010 [08/05/2010] No
P.L. 111-229, To increase the flexibility of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development with respect to the amount of premiums charged for FHA single family housing mortgage insurance, and for other purposes 08/10/2010 08/11/2010 [08/05/2010] No
P.L. 111-230, Making emergency supplemental appropriations for border security for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2010, and for other purposes 08/12/2010 08/13/2010 [08/11/2010] No
P.L. 111-231, To authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to terminate certain easements held by the Secretary on land owned by the Village of Caseyville, Illinois, and to terminate associated contractual arrangements with the Village 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-232, The Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin Act 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-233, The Agricultural Credit Act of 2009 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-234, To designate the annex building under construction for the Elbert P. Tuttle United States Court of Appeals Building in Atlanta, Georgia, as the “John C. Godbold United States Judicial Administration Building” 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-235, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 405 West Second Street in Dixon, Illinois, as the “President Ronald W. Reagan Post Office Building” 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-236, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 151 North Maitland Avenue in Maitland, Florida, as the “Paula Hawkins Post Office Building” 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-237, The Firearms Excise Tax Improvement Act of 2010 08/10/2010 08/16/2010 [08/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-238, To amend the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 to extend the authority of the Secretary of the Navy to enter into multiyear contracts for F/A-18E, F/A-18F, and EA-18G aircraft 09/23/2010 09/27/2010 [09/22/2010] No
P.L. 111-239, The Mandatory Price Reporting Act of 2010 09/21/2010 09/27/2010 [09/21/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-240, The Small Business Lending Fund Act of 2010 09/23/2010 09/27/2010 [09/16/2010] No
P.L. 111-241, The Multinational Species Conservation Funds Semipostal Stamp Act of 2009 09/23/2010 09/30/2010 [09/23/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-242, The Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011 09/30/2010 09/30/2010 No No
P.L. 111-243, To designate the Federal building under construction at 1220 Echelon Parkway in Jackson, Mississippi, as the “Chaney, Goodman, Schwerner Federal Building” 09/23/2010 09/30/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-244, To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to extend grants and other assistance to facilitate a political status public education program for the people of Guam 09/30/2010 09/30/2010 No No
P.L. 111-245, The First Responder Anti-Terrorism Training Resources Ac 09/22/2010 09/30/2010 [09/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-246, To enable State homes to furnish nursing home care to parents any of whose children died while serving in the Armed Forces 09/23/2010 09/30/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-247, The Veterans’ Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustment Act of 2010 09/23/2010 09/30/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-248, To improve the operation of certain facilities and programs of the House of Representatives, and for other purposes 09/23/2010 09/30/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-249, The Airport and Airway Extension Act of 2010, Part III 09/28/2010 09/30/2010 [09/28/2010] No
P.L. 111-250, The National Flood Insurance Program Reextension Act of 2010 09/24/2010 09/30/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-251, A bill to provide for an additional temporary extension of programs under the Small Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, and for other purposes 09/29/2010 09/30/2010 [09/28/2010] No
P.L. 111-252, To allow certain U.S. Customs and Border Protection employees who serve under an overseas limited appointment for at least 2 years, and whose service is rated fully successful or higher throughout that time, to be converted to a permanent appointment in the competitive service 09/28/2010 10/05/2010 [09/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-253, A bill to award a congressional gold medal to Dr. Muhammad Yunus, in recognition of his contributions to the fight against global poverty 09/28/2010 10/05/2010 [09/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-254, A bill to grant the congressional gold medal, collectively, to the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, United States Army, in recognition of their dedicated service during World War II 09/28/2010 10/05/2010 [09/28/2010] No
P.L. 111-255, The Improving Access to Clinical Trials Act of 2009 09/24/2010 10/05/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-256, Rosa’s Law 09/23/2010 10/05/2010 [09/23/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-257, A bill to amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Company Act of 1940, and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 to provide for certain disclosures under section 552 of title 5, United States Code, (commonly referred to as the Freedom of Information Act), and for other purposes 09/24/2010 10/05/2010 [09/24/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-258, The Reducing Over-Classification Act of 2009 09/30/2010 10/07/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-259, The Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 10/01/2010 10/07/2010 No No
P.L. 111-260, The Equal Access to 21st Century Communications Act 09/30/2010 10/08/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-261, To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to lease certain lands in Virgin Islands National Park, and for other purposes 09/30/2010 10/08/2010 No No
P.L. 111-262, The 5-Star Generals Commemorative Coin Act 09/30/2010 10/08/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-263, The Federal Supply Schedules Usage Act of 2009 09/29/2010 10/08/2010 [09/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-264, The Stem Cell Therapeutic and Research Reauthorization Act of 2010 10/04/2010 10/08/2010 [10/04/2010] No
P.L. 111-265, A bill to make technical corrections in the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 and the amendments made by that Act 09/30/2010 10/08/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-266, The Security Cooperation Act of 2010 09/29/2010 10/08/2010 [09/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-267, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 09/30/2010 10/11/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-268, The Combat Methamphetamine Enhancement Act of 2009 09/30/2010 10/12/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-269, The Indian Veterans Housing Opportunity Act of 2009 09/30/2010 10/12/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-270, To provide for an extension of the legislative authority of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Inc. to establish a Vietnam Veterans Memorial visitor center, and for other purposes 09/30/2010 10/12/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-271, The Redundancy Elimination and Enhanced Performance for Preparedness Grants Act 09/30/2010 10/12/2010 [10/06/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-272, The Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act Improvements Act of 2009 09/30/2010 10/12/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-273, The Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 09/30/2010 10/12/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-274, The Plain Language Act of 2009 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-275, The Veterans’ Insurance and Health Care Improvements Act of 2009 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-276, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 4285 Payne Avenue in San Jose, California, as the “Anthony J. Cortese Post Office Building” 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-277, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 100 Orndorf Drive in Brighton, Michigan, as the “Joyce Rogers Post Office Building” 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-278, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 13301 Smith Road in Cleveland, Ohio, as the “David John Donafee Post Office Building” 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-279, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 3894 Crenshaw Boulevard in Los Angeles, California, as the “Tom Bradley Post Office Building” 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-280, The WIPA and PABSS Extension Act of 2010 10/01/2010 10/13/2010 [09/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-281, The Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 10/04/2010 10/15/2010 [10/04/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-282, The United States Secret Service Uniformed Division Modernization Act of 2009 10/04/2010 10/15/2010 [10/04/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-283, The Pre-Election Presidential Transition Act of 2010 10/04/2010 10/15/2010 [10/04/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-284, The Mount Stevens and Ted Stevens Icefield Designation Act 10/12/2010 10/18/2010 [10/12/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-285, A bill to extend the deadline for Social Services Block Grant expenditures of supplemental funds appropriated following disasters occurring in 2008 11/19/2010 11/24/2010 [11/22/2010] No
P.L. 111-286, The Veterans’, Seniors’, and Children’s Health Technical Corrections Act of 2010 11/29/2010 11/30/2010 [11/29/2010] No
P.L. 111-287, A bill to restore immunization and sibling age exemptions for children adopted by United States citizens under the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption to allow their admission to the United States 11/19/2010 11/30/2010 [11/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-288, A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 100 Broadway in Lynbrook, New York, as the “Navy Corpsman Jeffrey L. Wiener Post Office Building” 11/19/2010 11/30/2010 [11/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-289, A joint resolution appointing the day for the convening of the first session of the One Hundred Twelfth Congress 11/19/2010 11/30/2010 [11/22/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-290, Making further continuing appropriations for fiscal year 2011, and for other purposes 12/03/2010 12/04/2010 [12/03/2010] No
P.L. 111-291, To accelerate the income tax benefits for charitable cash contributions for the relief of victims of the earthquake in Chile, and to extend the period from which such contributions for the relief of victims of the earthquake in Haiti may be accelerated 12/03/2010 12/08/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-292, The Telework Improvements Act of 2009 11/29/2010 12/09/2010 [11/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-293, The Help HAITI Act of 2010 12/03/2010 12/09/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-294, The Prevention of Interstate Commerce in Animal Crush Videos Act of 2010 11/30/2010 12/09/2010 [11/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-295, The Copyright Cleanup, Clarification, and Corrections Act of 2010 11/30/2010 12/09/2010 [11/30/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-296, The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 12/06/2010 12/13/2010 [12/01/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-297, To designate the Federal building located at 100 North Palafox Street in Pensacola, Florida, as the “Winston E. Arnow Federal Building” 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-298, To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 515 9th Street in Rapid City, South Dakota, as the “Andrew W. Bogue Federal Building and United States Courthouse” 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-299, To designate the facility of the Government Printing Office located at 31451 East United Avenue in Pueblo, Colorado, as the “Frank Evans Government Printing Office Building” 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-300, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2 Government Center in Fall River, Massachusetts, as the “Sergeant Robert Barrett Post Office Building” 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-301, To designate the Federal building located at 6401 Security Boulevard in Baltimore, Maryland, as the “Robert M. Ball Federal Building” 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-302, The Coin Modernization, Oversight, and Continuity Act of 2010 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-303, The American Eagle Palladium Bullion Coin Act of 2010 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-304, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1351 2nd Street in Napa, California, as the “Tom Kongsgaard Post Office Building” 12/03/2010 12/13/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-305, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 337 West Clark Street in Eureka, California, as the “Sam Sacco Post Office Building” 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-306, A bill to require the accreditation of English language, and for other purposes 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-307, The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-308, The Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act of 2010 12/03/2010 12/14/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-309, The Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010 12/10/2010 12/15/2010 [12/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-310, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 2 Massachusetts Avenue, N.E., in Washington, D.C., as the “Dorothy I. Height Post Office Building” 12/03/2010 12/15/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-311, The CALM Act 12/03/2010 12/15/2010 [12/03/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-312, The Middle Class Tax Relief Act of 2010 12/17/2010 12/17/2010 [12/14/2010] No
P.L. 111-313, The Truth in Fur Labeling Act of 2009 12/09/2010 12/18/2010 [12/09/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-314, To enact certain laws relating to National and Commercial Space Programs as title 51, United States Code, “National and Commercial Space Programs” 12/09/2010 12/18/2010 [12/09/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-315, To amend the Water Resources Development Act of 2000 to extend and modify the program allowing the Secretary of the Army to accept and expend funds contributed by non-Federal public entities to expedite the evaluation of permits, and for other purposes 12/09/2010 12/18/2010 [12/09/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-316, To improve certain administrative operations of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol, and for other purposes 12/09/2010 12/18/2010 [12/09/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-317, Making further continuing appropriations for fiscal year 2011, and for other purposes 12/17/2010 12/18/2010 No No
P.L. 111-318, The Social Security Number Protection Act of 2010 12/09/2010 12/18/2010 [12/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-319, The Red Flag Program Clarification Act of 2010 12/09/2010 12/18/2010 [12/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-320, The CAPTA Reauthorization Act of 2010 12/14/2010 12/20/2010 [12/14/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-321, The Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act of 2010 12/21/2010 12/22/2010 [12/19/2010] No
P.L. 111-322, The Continuing Appropriations and Surface Transportation Extensions Act, 2011 12/21/2010 12/22/2010 No No
P.L. 111-323, The Hoh Indian Tribe Safe Homelands Act 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-324, To reauthorize and enhance Johanna’s Law to increase public awareness and knowledge with respect to gynecologic cancers 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-325, The Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-326, To designate the facility of the Federal Aviation Administration located at Spokane International Airport in Spokane, Washington, as the “Ray Daves Air Traffic Control Tower” 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-327, The Bankruptcy Technical Corrections Act of 2010 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-328, The Kingman and Heritage Islands Act of 2010 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-329, The Airport and Airway Extension Act of 2010, Part IV 12/21/2010 12/22/2010 [12/21/2010] No
P.L. 111-330, To make technical corrections to provisions of law enacted by the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/20/2010] No
P.L. 111-331, The Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/17/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-332, The National Foundation on Physical Fitness and Sports Establishment Act 12/16/2010 12/22/2010 [12/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-333, The Longfellow House-Washington’s Headquarters National Historic Site Designation Act 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/17/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-334, A bill to amend the Act of August 9, 1955, to authorize the Coquille Indian Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians, the Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw, the Klamath Tribes, and the Burns Paiute Tribe to obtain 99-year lease authority for trust land 12/16/2010 12/22/2010 [12/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-335, The Longline Catcher Processor Subsector Single Fishery Cooperative Act 12/16/2010 12/22/2010 [12/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-336, A bill to amend the Act of August 9, 1955, to modify a provision relating to leases involving certain Indian tribes 12/16/2010 12/22/2010 [12/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-337, The Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Act of 2010 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/17/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-338, The FOR VETS Act of 2010 12/16/2010 12/22/2010 [12/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-339, A bill to require reports on the management of Arlington National Cemetery 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/17/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-340, The Museum and Library Services Act of 2010 12/16/2010 12/22/2010 [12/16/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-341, The Criminal History Background Checks Pilot Extension Act of 2010 12/10/2010 12/22/2010 [12/10/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-342, The Preserving Foreign Criminal Assets for Forfeiture Act of 2010 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/17/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-343, To require the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to fully insure Interest on Lawyers Trust Accounts 12/23/2010 12/29/2010 [12/23/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-344, The Omnibus Trade Act of 2010 12/23/2010 12/29/2010 [12/23/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-345, The Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act 12/17/2010 12/29/2010 [12/20/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-346, The Helping Heroes Keep Their Homes Act of 2010 12/23/2010 12/29/2010 [12/23/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-347, The James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2009 12/23/2010 01/02/2010 [12/23/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-348, The Shark Conservation Act of 2009 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-349, To establish a pilot program in certain United States district courts to encourage enhancement of expertise in patent cases among district judges 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 12/28/2010 Yes
P.L. 111-350, To enact certain laws relating to public contracts as title 41, United States Code, “Public Contracts” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 12/28/2010 Yes
P.L. 111-351, The Pre-Disaster Mitigation Act of 2009 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 12/28/2010 Yes
P.L. 111-352, The Government Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Performance Improvement Act of 2009 12/29/2010 01/04/2010 [12/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-353, The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act 12/29/2010 01/04/2010 [12/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-354, The Indian Pueblo Cultural Center Clarification Act 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-355, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1332 Sharon Copley Road in Sharon Center, Ohio, as the “Emil Bolas Post Office” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-356, The Northern Border Counternarcotics Strategy Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-357, The National Wildlife Refuge Volunteer Improvement Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-358, The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-359, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 331 1st Street in Carlstadt, New Jersey, as the “Staff Sergeant Frank T. Carvill and Lance Corporal Michael A. Schwarz Post Office Building” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-360, To exclude an external power supply for certain security or life safety alarms and surveillance system components from the application of certain energy efficiency standards under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-361, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 47 East Fayette Street in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, as the “George C. Marshall Post Office” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-362, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 47 South 7th Street in Indiana, Pennsylvania, as the “James M. ‘Jimmy’ Stewart Post Office Building” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-363, To designate the Little River Branch facility of the United States Postal Service located at 140 NE 84th Street in Miami, Florida, as the “Jesse J. McCrary, Jr. Post Office” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-364, The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act of 2010 12/29/2010 01/04/2010 [12/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-365, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 655 Centre Street in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, as the “Lance Corporal Alexander Scott Arredondo, United States Marine Corps Post Office Building” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-366, The Real Estate Jobs and Investment Act of 2010 12/29/2010 01/04/2010 [12/29/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-367, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 5003 Westfields Boulevard in Centreville, Virginia, as the “Colonel George Juskalian Post Office Building” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-368, To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 111 North 6th Street in St. Louis, Missouri, as the “Earl Wilson, Jr. Post Office” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-369, The Access to Criminal History Records for State Sentencing Commissions Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-370, To direct the Administrator of General Services to convey a parcel of real property in Houston, Texas, to the Military Museum of Texas, and for other purposes 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-371, The Local Community Radio Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-372, The Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Act of 2009 12/17/2010 12/22/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-373, The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2009 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-374, The Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2009 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-375, The National Alzheimer’s Project Act 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-376, The Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-377, The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-378, A bill to amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to clarify Federal responsibility for stormwater pollution 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-379, A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 100 Commerce Drive in Tyrone, Georgia, as the “First Lieutenant Robert Wilson Collins Post Office Building” 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-380, The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-381, A bill to authorize leases of up to 99 years for lands held in trust for Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-382, A bill to clarify the National Credit Union Administration authority to make stabilization fund expenditures without borrowing from the Treasury 12/28/2010 01/04/2010 [12/28/2010] Yes
P.L. 111-383, The Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 12/29/2010 01/07/2010 [12/29/2010] Yes

(Parentheses indicate a separate Whitehouse.gov page with a link to Thomas legislative database)

* Page now gone, but it was either directly observed, evidence of it appears in Whitehouse.gov search, or White House says it existed.

[Brackets indicate a link from Whitehouse.gov to Thomas legislative database]

† Bill was posted for five days after final passage, though not formal presentment. Counted as “Yes.”

‡ Link to final version of bill on impossible-to-find page.

E! Emergency legislation not subject to five-day posting. Counted as “Yes” in simplifying graphs and tables.

Wikileaks and ‘Economies of Repression’

My onetime professor Jorge Castañeda—later better known as Mexico’s foreign minister under Vicente Fox—used to speak with grudging admiration about the “Economy of Repression” practiced by the long-reigning Partido Revolucionario Institucional. He used the phrase in a dual sense: It was repression carried out by economic means, as papers that strayed too far from the PRI line would suddenly find their lucrative government advertising revenue drying up, state-controlled suppliers jacking up prices, and PRI-linked union workers threatening strike. But it was also an economical (that is, a parsimonious)means of repression, operating indirectly and relatively invisibly, and allowing more heavy-handed mechanisms—the censor’s pen and the truncheon—to be used more sparingly.

Castañeda’s phrase has crossed my mind more than once over the past week, as we’ve witnessed an array of digital intermediaries and financial institutions cutting ties with Wikileaks in the wake of attacks on the controversial site by prominent politicians. Amazon booted the whistleblowing organization from its hosting service shortly after receiving a concerned call from the office of Sen. Joe Lieberman. Amazon officials say the timing is purely coincidental, but the company still won praise for the decision from a group of prominent senators. Visa and MasterCard—both recent beneficiaries of lobbying by the Obama administration—blocked donations to Wikileaks, as did online payment processor PayPal, explicitly citing a recent letter to Wikileaks from the State Department declaring the organization’s activities illegal. (Donations to the KKK, by contrast, are still allowed.)

Like many who generally favor greater transparency, I have serious reservations about the way Wikileaks operates. While it is clearly false to claim, as some have, that the site is dumping classified material online “indiscriminately,” I have serious doubts that the news value of much of the released material outweighs the potential security risks or the chilling effect on diplomacy. Nor do I have much sympathy with what appears to be Julian Assange’s “heighten the contradictions” strategy of forcing governments to clamp down on internal information sharing.

It would be far better if we didn’t have a system of endemic overclassification, so that genuinely sensitive material were not mixed in with routine reports available to thousands of contractors and fresh-faced junior military personnel. It would be better if whistleblowers within the Defense Department who tried working through internal channels did not face reprisals, as an oversight report recently found they too often do. And it would be better if traditional media outlets had been quicker to fill the niche Julian Assange’s organization now occupies.

Whatever concerns I might have about Wikileaks, however, I’m still more troubled to see political actors pressuring intermediary firms in an effort to throttle a media organization that has been convicted of no crime. Indeed, the State Department’s assertion notwithstanding, it’s not clear that Wikileaks could be convicted in light of the strong precedent set by the Pentagon Papers case. As a recent report from the Congressional Research Service put it:

We are aware of no case in which a publisher of information obtained through unauthorized disclosure by a government employee has been prosecuted for publishing it. There may be First Amendment implications that would make such a prosecution difficult, not to mention political ramifications based on concerns about government censorship.

In the heady days of the 1990s, it was widely assumed that the global Internet was, by its nature, an anarchic zone of untrammeled speech inherently immune from the control of governments quite apart from any formal legal constraints on censorship. But as political scientist Henry Farrell, among other scholars, has observed:

[A] small group of privileged private actors can become “points of control”–states can use them to exert control over a much broader group of other private actors. This is because the former private actors control chokepoints in the information infrastructure or in other key networks of resources. They can block or control flows of data or of other valuable resources among a wide variety of other private actors.

The freedom of the global Internet comes with an increased dependence on globalized intermediaries, over whom political actors in large and valuable markets will typically exert enormous leverage. A dissident publication running its own press may have an incentive to resist that political pressure—but a multinational credit card company or hosting provider, for whom the publisher is a relatively insignificant source of revenue—will often find its bottom line better served by compliance. As Farrell notes, we’ve already seen a similar strategy pursued against offshore gambling sites, whose payment processors were threatened with litigation by ambitious prosecutors.

It’s a sobering validation of Friedrich Hayek’s famous dictum that to be controlled in our economic pursuits—perhaps now more than ever—means to be controlled in everything. Whatever you think of Wikileaks, the idea that a controversial speaker can be so effectively attacked quite outside the bounds of any direct legal process, thanks to the enormous leverage our government exerts on global telecommunications and finance firms, ought to provoke immense concern for the future of free expression online.

This Is Earmark Transparency

This morning, a database of FY 2011 earmark requests was released by Taxpayers Against Earmarks, Taxpayers for Common Sense, and my own WashingtonWatch.com. With House Republicans generally eschewing earmarks this year, members of Congress and senators still sought over 39,000 earmarks, valued at over $130 billion dollars. Learn more on the relevant pages at Taxpayers for Common Sense, Taxpayers Against Earmarks, and WashingtonWatch.com.

This is transparency. The production of organized, machine-readable data has allowed these differing groups—an advocacy organization, a spending analysis group, and a “Web 2.0” transparency site—to expand the discussion about earmarks. The data is available to any group, to the press, and to political scientists and researchers.

Earmarking is a questionable practice, and, anticipating public scrutiny, House and Senate Republicans have determined to eschew earmarks for the time being. But the earmark requests in this database are still very much “live.” They could be approved in whatever spending legislation Congress passes for the 2011 fiscal year. They also tell us how our representatives acted before they got careful about earmarks.

Earmarks are a small corner of the federal policy process, of course, but when all legislation, budgeting, spending, and regulation has become more transparent—truly transparent, Senator Durbin—the public’s oversight of Congress will be much, much better. As I noted at our December 2008 conference, “Just Give Us the Data,” progressives believe that it would validate government programs and root out corruption. (That’s fine—corruption and ongoing failure in federal programs are not preferable.) I believe that demand for government will drop. The average American family pays about $100 per day for the operation of the federal government currently. That’s a lot.

Again, you can see how this data is in use, and you can use it yourself, by visiting Taxpayers for Common Sense, Taxpayers Against Earmarks, and WashingtonWatch.com. On the latter site, you can see a map of earmarks in your state and lists of earmarks by member of Congress and representative, then vote and comment on individual earmarks.

At considerable expense and effort, these sites have done what President Obama asked Congress to do in January. If earmarking is to continue, Congress could produce earmark data as a matter of course itself: The appropriations committees could take earmark requests online and immediately publish them, rather than using the opaque exchange of letters, phone calls, and—who knows—homing pigeons.

Congress should modernize and make itself more transparent. We’re showing the way.

No, Senator Durbin, Earmarks Are Not Transparent

This morning the full Senate voted down a proposed rule that would have barred earmarks for the next two years. Part of the reason? Earmarks are transparent.

Here’s Senator Dick Durbin (D-Ill.), quoted in a Hill article:

There is full disclosure in my office of every single request for an appropriation. We then ask those who have made the requests to have a full disclaimer of their involvement in the appropriation, so it’s there for the public record. This kind of transparency is virtually unprecedented.

Senator Durbin doesn’t know transparency. Take a look at Senator Durbin’s earmark disclosures. Yes, you can read through them, one by one. But can you make a list of recipients? Can you add up the totals? Can you search for common words in the brief explanations for each earmark? Can you make a map showing where recipients of Senator Durbin’s requests are?

No, no, no, and no.

That’s because Senator Durbin puts his request disclosures out as scanned PDFs. Someone on his staff takes a letter and puts it on a scanner, making a PDF document of the image. Then the staffer posts that image on the senator’s web site. It’s totally useless if you want to use the data for anything. Notably, Senator Durbin doesn’t even include the addresses of his earmark recipients.

Last year, visitors to my transparency project, WashingtonWatch.com, laboriously took earmark disclosures like Senator Durbin’s and gathered the data from them. Now—because of their work—you can see a map of Illinois earmarks and the list of Senator Durbin’s requests for FY 2010.

Early this year, President Obama called for “a comprehensive, bipartisan, state-of-the-art disclosure database that allows Americans to examine the details of every proposed earmark before a vote is taken.” He wasn’t talking about WashingtonWatch.com or the public doing this work—he was talking about Congress putting a database together with earmark data in useful formats.

Later in the early part of the year, I worked with a small group of transparency activists to show Congress how to do earmark transparency. Earmarkdata.org has our earmark data schema—the guide to producing earmark information in a way the public can use. (You can sign a petition there to support earmark transparency.)

No, Senator Durbin, your earmarks are not transparent. We’re producing the state-of-the-art database. We’re setting the precedent for transparency. Your PDF-image disclosures are a day late and a dollar short.

Here are the votes on the earmark moratorium taken in the Senate this morning. A “No” vote supports continuation of earmarking. A “Yes” vote is opposed to earmarking.