Tag: Steve Hanke

The Iran Hyperinflation Fact Sheet

For months, I have been following the collapse of the Iranian rial, tracking black-market (free-market) exchange-rate data from foreign-exchange bazaars in Tehran. Using the most recent data, I now estimate that Iran is experiencing hyperinflation – a price-level increase of over 50%, per month.

In recent days, Iranians have taken to the streets in protest over the collapse of the rial. In response, the Iranian government has cracked down on the protestors and shuttered Tehran’s foreign-exchange black market.  Moreover, it has effectively cut off the supply of reliable economic information. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio in the Iranian economic sphere, which is normally quite low, is now even lower than usual.

To address this, I have prepared a fact sheet of the top 10 things you should know about Iran’s hyperinflation.

  1. Iran is experiencing an implied monthly inflation rate of 69.6%.
    • For comparison, in the month before the sanctions took effect (June 2010), the monthly inflation rate was 0.698%.
  2. Iran is experiencing an implied annual inflation rate of 196%.
    • For comparison, in June 2010, the annual (year-over-year) inflation rate was 8.25%.
  3. The current monthly inflation rate implies a price-doubling time of 39.8 days.
  4. The current inflation rate implies an equivalent daily inflation rate of 1.78%.
    • Compare that to the United States, whose annual inflation rate is 1.69%.
  5. Since hyperinflation broke out, Iran’s estimated Hanke Misery Index score has skyrocketed from 106 (September 10th) to 231 (October 2nd).
    • See the accompanying chart.

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  6. Iran is the first country in the Middle East to experience hyperinflation.
  7. Iran’s Hyperinflation is the third hyperinflation episode of the 21st century.
  8. Since the sanctions first took effect, in July 2010, the rial has depreciated by 71.4%.
  9. At the current monthly inflation rate, Iran’s hyperinflation ranks as the 48th worst case of hyperinflation in history.
  10. The Iranian Rial is now the least-valued currency in the world (in nominal terms).
    • In September 2012, the rial passed the Vietnamese dong, which currently has an exchange rate of 20,845 VND/USD.

Hyperinflation Has Arrived In Iran

Since the U.S. and E.U. first enacted sanctions against Iran, in 2010, the value of the Iranian rial (IRR) has plummeted, imposing untold misery on the Iranian people. When a currency collapses, you can be certain that other economic metrics are moving in a negative direction, too. Indeed, using new data from Iran’s foreign-exchange black market, I estimate that Iran’s monthly inflation rate has reached 69.6%. With a monthly inflation rate this high (over 50%), Iran is undoubtedly experiencing hyperinflation.

When President Obama signed the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act, in July 2010, the official Iranian rial-U.S. dollar exchange rate was very close to the black-market rate. But, as the accompanying chart shows, the official and black-market rates have increasingly diverged since July 2010. This decline began to accelerate last month, when Iranians witnessed a dramatic 9.65% drop in the value of the rial, over the course of a single weekend (8-10 September 2012). The free-fall has continued since then. On 2 October 2012, the black-market exchange rate reached 35,000 IRR/USD – a rate which reflects a 65% decline in the rial, relative to the U.S. dollar.

The rial’s death spiral is wiping out the currency’s purchasing power. In consequence, Iran is now experiencing a devastating increase in prices – hyperinflation.  As Nicholas Krus and I document in our recent Cato Working Paper, World Hyperinflations, there have been 57 documented cases of hyperinflation in history, the most recent of which was North Korea’s 2009-11 hyperinflation. That said, North Korea’s hyperinflation did not come close to the magnitudes reached in the recent, second-highest hyperinflation in the world, that of Zimbabwe, in 2008, nor has Iran’s hyperinflation – at least not yet.

The Grim Reaper is Relentless — Unfortunately

Last October, the Grim Reaper cut down my long-time colleague and friend, Bill Niskanen – Chairman Emeritus of the Cato Institute. If Niskanen’s loss wasn’t bad enough, I learned in April that I had lost another friend and brilliant economist, Ralph Turvey. On September 14th, we will celebrate Ralph’s life at the Reform Club, in London. For this event, I prepared the following, a “remembrance.”

I feel as though I cut my economic eye teeth on “Turvey.” Yes, I even wrote two articles with titles that contained the word “Turvey:”




But, my favorite remembrance of Ralph wasn’t from economics, per se. Once, after Ralph had abandoned his regular duties at LSE in the 1960s, I asked him why he still embraced the title, “Professor.” He immediately replied, and with twinkle in his eye: “Well Steve, in London, the title ‘Professor’ can still pull the first table in a proper restaurant.”

We both then had a very good laugh and resumed our intense discussion on the beauty of water meters.


Clinton and Obama, Polar Opposites

Last night, Bill Clinton introduced President Barack Obama as the Democratic nominee. He went to great lengths to stress their similarities, but failed to mention their divergent views on the appropriate size of government.

When President Clinton took office in 1993, government expenditures were 22.1% of GDP, and when he departed in 2000, the federal government’s share of the economy had been squeezed to a low of 18.2%. As the accompanying table shows, during the Clinton years, federal government expenditures as a percent of GDP fell by 3.9 percentage points. No other modern president has come close.


And, that’s not all. During the final three years of the former President’s second term, the federal government was generating fiscal surpluses. Clinton was even confident enough to boldly claim, in his January 1996 State of the Union address, that “the era of big government is over.”

When it comes to the appropriate size of government, Clinton and Obama are polar opposites.

Swiss Monetary Policy: Dangerous Contradictions

The Swiss National Bank is conducting a bizarre, contradictory, and potentially dangerous set of monetary policies.

During the past year, the SNB has mandated the imposition of super-high bank capital requirements. Indeed, the SNB, in its annual Financial Stability Report, even admonished Credit Suisse for not building up a big enough capital cushion. The Swiss capital mandates have caused the rate of growth in money created by Swiss banks (bank money) to plunge.

As can be seen in the accompanying chart, Swiss bank money was 25 percent lower in July 2012 than it was in July 2011. This should be alarming because bank money is, by far, the biggest component of the total money supply. In fact, since the beginning of 2003, bank money has, on average, constituted 89 percent of the total Swiss money supply.

Bank regulations in Switzerland and elsewhere, have resulted in, you guessed it: very tight bank money.

Not being one to sit on its hands, the SNB has turned on its money pumps. Indeed, Swiss state money—the money produced by the SNB—was 305 percent higher in July 2012 than in July 2011.

This explosion in state money has been more than enough to offset the contraction of the all-important bank money component.

In consequence, Switzerland’s total money supply grew at a 10 percent year-over-year rate in July 2012. With double-digit money supply growth, and overall prices declining, it’s little wonder that prices in certain asset classes, such as housing, are surging in Switzerland.

The Road to Ruin

I have often warned against the dangers associated with conventional wisdom. With the onset of the financial crisis and the corresponding plunge in asset prices, I noted that people who were wealthy or who were close to retirement were the ones getting clobbered. New evidence now confirms this: Americans nearing retirement took the biggest hit after the financial crisis.

The sad truth is that their road to ruin was, in many cases, paved by conventional wisdom about investing.

That wisdom had many believing that, over the long run, stocks produce the highest returns; that a diversified stock portfolio protects you against loss; and that the risk of owning stocks is small, if you hold them for a long time.

While the number of decades in which U.S. equities underperform other asset classes may be small, the size of the shortfalls, when they occur, can be huge. For those who are near retirement, the shortfalls can be devastating. As a recent study from the Pew Research Center shows, the plunge in asset prices that followed the financial crisis has resulted in “a lost decade of the middle class,” with the median real net worth in America now resting roughly where it was in 1983.

And if that’s not bad enough, those folks might not ever get a shot at making up the loss in their lifetimes. As Catherine Rampell’s recent reporting in the New York Times shows, median household income has fallen most sharply among 55–64 year olds, since June 2009.

Diversification is useful, in varying degrees, most of the time. But there are occasions when all stocks dive simultaneously, and in these cases a diversified stock portfolio won’t save you.

Beware of conventional economic wisdom. Some 95% of what you read in the financial press is either wrong or irrelevant.

Slumping Money Supply (Not Austerity) Plunges Hungary Into Recession

Hungary is in a recession, again. According to the chattering classes, as well as many analysts and financial reporters, fiscal austerity is the cause of Hungary’s slump.

Nonsense. Hungary’s recession results from its slumping money supply.

When monetary and fiscal policies move in opposite directions, the economy will follow the direction taken by monetary (not fiscal) policy – money dominates. For doubters, just consider Japan and the United States in the 1990s. The Japanese government engaged in a massive fiscal stimulus program, while the Bank of Japan embraced a super-tight monetary policy. In consequence, Japan suffered under deflationary pressures and experienced a lost decade of economic growth.

In the U.S., the 1990s were marked by a strong boom. The Fed was accommodative and President Clinton was super-austere – the most tight-fisted president in the post-World War II era. President Clinton chopped 3.9 percentage points off federal government expenditures as a percent of GDP. No other modern U.S. President has even come close to Clinton’s record.

The money supply picture for Hungary seemed to be looking up until late 2011 (see the accompanying chart). Indeed, Hungary’s money supply had nearly returned to its trend-rate level, when it peaked in November 2011. Then, in the course of just over a month, things took a turn for the worse.

First, Moody’s downgraded Hungary’s debt to junk status, and soon thereafter, S&P and Fitch followed suit. Then, the EU and IMF walked out on debt restructuring talks, citing concerns over proposed constitutional changes, which threatened the Hungarian central bank’s independence. Just days later, their fears were confirmed, as the Hungarian Parliament passed the controversial law, merging the central bank with the Financial Supervisory Authority. And, to top it off, Hungary unexpectedly cancelled part of its December debt auction.

When the dust settled, confidence in Hungary’s financial system had been shattered. Despite a 15.9% increase in the supply of state money, the total money supply had plummeted by 4.2% (from November 2011 to January 2012). As the accompanying table shows, this decline in the total money supply was driven by a 9% drop in the all-important bank-money component of the total.

Hungary’s money supply has yet to recover from this perfect monetary storm. And, as if that wasn’t enough, Hungary recently adopted a damaging financial transactions levy.

Money and monetary policy trump fiscal policy. Until Hungary gets its money and banking houses in order, its economy will continue to wallow in recession.