Tag: michael hayden

Oh, the Uses of the ‘Cyber’ Prefix: Cyberbellicosity, for Example

Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid’s (D-Nev.) announcement yesterday of upcoming Senate action on cybersecurity legislation coincides nicely with reporting that the recently discovered Flame virus has similarities to Stuxnet. You see, the best example of a cyberattack having kinetic effects—causing physical damage—is Stuxnet. It targeted Siemens industrial software and equipment used in Iran’s nuclear program, causing damage to some centrifuges used in that program.

Stuxnet is widely believed to be a product of the U.S. and Israeli governments. Flame’s kinship with Stuxnet adds to the story: Our government is a top producer of cyberattacks.

The methods used in these viruses will be foreclosed as researchers unpack how they work. Our technical systems adapt to new threats the way humans develop antibodies to disease. But in the near term the techniques in Stuxnet and Flame may well be incorporated into attacks on our computing infrastructure.

The likelihood of attacks having extraordinary consequences is low. This talk of “cyberwar” and “cyberterror” is the ugly poetry of budget-building in Washington, D.C. But watch out for U.S. cyberbellicosity coming home to roost. The threat environment is developing in response to U.S. aggression.

This parallels the United States’ use of nuclear weapons, which made “the bomb” (Dmitri) an essential tool of world power. Rightly or wrongly, the United States’ use of the bomb spurred the nuclear arms race and triggered nuclear proliferation challenges that continue today. (To repeat: Cyberattacks can have nothing like the consequence of nuclear weapons.)

Senator Reid has gone hook, line, and sinker for the “cyber-9/11” idea, of course. Like all politicians, his primary job is not to set appropriate cybersecurity policies but to re-elect himself and members of his party. The tiniest risk of a cyberattack making headlines to use against his party justifies expending taxpayer dollars, privacy, and digital liberties. This it not to prevent cyberattack. It is to prevent political attack.

Politics is well understood by the authors of the letter Senator Reid cited in his statement about bringing cybersecurity legislation to the Senate floor. They are mostly from the party opposite his. Several of them participated at some level in developing our nation’s cyberbellicose world posture. And several now make their living in consulting and contracting firms that respond to the danger they helped create.

They are:

  • Michael Chertoff, Homeland Security secretary under President Bush, is now co-founder and Managing Principal of The Chertoff Group, which “provides business and government leaders with the same kind of high-level, strategic thinking and diligent execution that have kept the American homeland and its people safe since 9/11.”
  • Mike McConnell, former director of the National Security Agency and National Intelligence under President Bush, is now Vice Chairman of Booz Allen Hamilton.
  • Paul Wolfowitz was a deputy defense secretary under President Bush, now a visiting scholar at AEI.
  • General Michael Hayden, former director of the NSA and the CIA under President Bush, is now a principal at the Chertoff Group, and in January 2011 was elected to the Board of Directors of Motorola Solutions, which “provides business- and mission-critical communication products and services to enterprises and governments.”
  • Gen. James Cartwright, former vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is on the board of advisors of TASC, Inc. TASC “provides advanced systems engineering, integration and decision–support services to the Intelligence Community, Departments of Defense and Homeland Security and civilian agencies of the federal government. We deliver honest counsel, forward–thinking engineering and advanced technologies that help our customers protect Americans at home, in the air, on the battlefield and in cyberspace.”
  • Hon. William J. Lynn III, former deputy defense secretary, is now Chairman & CEO of DRS Technologies, a Defense and Security Electronics Division of Italian industrial group Finmeccanica. DRS Technologies is “leading supplier of integrated products, services and support to military forces, intelligence agencies and prime contractors worldwide.”

Top NSA Mathematician: ‘I should apologize to the American people. It’s violated everyone’s rights.’

If you’re a telecommunications firm that helped the National Security Agency illegally spy on your customers without a court order, Sen. Barack Obama will happily vote for legislation he once promised to filibuster in order to secure retroactive immunity. If you’re implicated in the use of torture as an interrogation tactic, you can breathe easy knowing President Barack Obama thinks it’s in the country’s best interests to “look forward, not back.”  But if you were a government official spurred by conscience to blow the whistle on government malfeasance or ineptitude in the war on terror?  As Jane Mayer details in a must-read New Yorker article, you’d better watch out! This administration is shattering records for highly selective prosecutions under the espionage act—and the primary criteria seems to be, not whether national security was harmed in any discernible way by your disclosures, but by the degree of embarrassment they caused the government.

The whole thing is fascinating, but I’m especially interested in the discussion of how electronic surveillance tools that came with built-in privacy controls were tossed in favor of more indiscriminate programs that, by the way, didn’t work and generated huge cost overruns. The most striking quotations come from disillusioned Republican intelligence officials. Here’s Bill Binney, a top NSA mathematician and analyst, on the uses to which his work was put:

Binney expressed terrible remorse over the way some of his algorithms were used after 9/11. ThinThread, the “little program” that he invented to track enemies outside the U.S., “got twisted,” and was used for both foreign and domestic spying: “I should apologize to the American people. It’s violated everyone’s rights. It can be used to eavesdrop on the whole world.”

One GOP staffer on the House Intelligence Committee recounted an exchange with then-NSA head Michael Hayden:

[Diane] Roark, who had substantial influence over N.S.A. budget appropriations, was an early champion of Binney’s ThinThread project. She was dismayed, she says, to hear that it had evolved into a means of domestic surveillance, and felt personally responsible. Her oversight committee had been created after Watergate specifically to curb such abuses. “It was my duty to oppose it,” she told me. “That is why oversight existed, so that these things didn’t happen again. I’m not an attorney, but I thought that there was no way it was constitutional.” [….] She asked Hayden why the N.S.A. had chosen not to include privacy protections for Americans. She says that he “kept not answering. Finally, he mumbled, and looked down, and said, ‘We didn’t need them. We had the power.’ He didn’t even look me in the eye. I was flabbergasted.”

Remember, these aren’t hippies from The Nation,, or ACLU attorneys, or even (ahem) wild-eyed Cato libertarians. They’re registered Republicans appalled by the corruption of the intelligence mission to which they’d devoted their professional lives.

‘Collateral damage worries you Americans. It does not worry me.’

Earlier this year, both The New York Times and The Washington Post confirmed that the Obama administration authorized the CIA to kill American-born, Yemeni-based Islamic cleric, Anwar al-Awlaki.

Several people I admire and respect—and who are far more versed in the legal aspects of the “war on terror”—have already weighed in on whether the U.S. Government is authorized to kill U.S. terror suspects abroad, so I defer to those experts.

But what’s interesting is that the U.S. Government has killed “many Westerners, including some U.S. passport holders” in Pakistan’s tribal areas dating all the way back to the Bush administration, according to Bob Woodward’s new book.

Jeff Stein over at WaPo’s SpyTalk writes that according to Woodward, on November 12, 2008, then-CIA Director Gen. Michael Hayden disclosed the killings to Pakistani president Asif Ali Zardari during a meeting in New York. At the meeting, Zardari allegedly said, “Collateral damage worries you Americans. It does not worry me.”

It now appears that two human rights groups are challenging the legality of the Obama Justice Department’s right to kill U.S. citizens abroad. Will these groups now do the same with former Bush officials, too?